Biases

Biases in tests of treatments are those influences and factors that can lead to conclusions about treatment effects that are systematically different from the truth.


JLL Essay
2.0 Avoiding biased treatment comparisons

So what are fair tests?

 

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Hippocrates (5th Century BCE)
Ancient Medicine. In: Littré MPE (1839). Oeuvres complètes d’Hippocrate, vol 1. Traduction nouvelle avec le texte grec en regard, collationé sur les manuscrits et toutes les éditions; accompagnée d’une introduction, de commentaries medicaux, de variants et de notes philologiques; suivie d’ une table générale des matières. Paris: J-B Bailliere, p 572.

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Bacon F (1626)
The New Atlantis. Republished in: Rawley W (1685). Sylva Sylvarum: or a natural history in ten centuries. Written by the Right Honorable Francis, Lord Verulam, Viscount Sr. Albans. Eleventh edition. London: Printed for B Griffin.

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Bacon F (1645)
Franc Baconis de Verulamio / Summi Angliae Cancellarii /Novum organum scientiarum. Lugd. Bat: apud Adrianum Wiingaerde, et Franciscum Moiardum. Aphorism XLVI (pages 45-46).

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Van Helmont JB (1648)
Ortus medicinæ: Id est Initia physicæ inaudita. Progressus medicinae novus, in morborum ultionem, ad vitam longam [The dawn of medicine: That is, the beginning of a new Physic. A new advance in medicine, a victory over disease, to (promote) a long life]. Amsterodami: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, pp 526-527.

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Starkey G (1657)
Natures explication and Helmont’s vindication…Or A short and sure way to a long and sound life. London: printed by E. Cotes for Thomas Alsop at the two Sugar-loaves over against St. Antholins Church at the lower end of Watling Street.

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Massey I (1723)
A short and plain account of inoculation. With some remarks on the main argument made use of to recommend that practice, by Mr. Maitland and others. To which is added, a letter to the learned James Jurin, M.D.R.S. Secr. Col. Reg. Med. Lond. Soc. London: W. Meadows.

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Jurin J (1724)
A letter to the learned Dr. Caleb Cotesworth, F. R. S. of the College of Physicians, London, and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital; containing a comparison between the danger of the natural small pox, and that given by inoculation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1722 - 1723), 32:213-227.

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Lind J (1753)
A treatise of the scurvy. In three parts. Containing an inquiry into the nature, causes and cure, of that disease. Together with a critical and chronological view of what has been published on the subject. Edinburgh: Printed by Sands, Murray and Cochran for A Kincaid and A Donaldson.

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Gregory J (1772)
Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. London: Strahan and Cadell.

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Mesmer FA (1781)
Précis historique des faits relatifs au magnétisme animal jusques en avril 1781. Par M. Mesmer, Docteur en Médecine de la Faculté de Vienne. Ouvrage traduit de l'Allemand [Historical account of facts relating to animal magnetism up to April 1781. By M. Mesmer, Doctor in Medicine of the Vienna Faculty. Work translated from German]. A Londres [false imprint, probably Paris.] pp. 111-114; 182.

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Haygarth J (1784)
An inquiry into how to prevent smallpox. Chester and London.

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Commission Royale. Bailly A (1784)
Rapport des commissaires chargés par le Roi, de l'examen du magnétisme animale. Imprimé par ordre du Roi. Paris: A Paris, de L'Imprimerie Royale.

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Withering W (1785)
An account of the foxglove and some of its medical uses: with practical remarks on dropsy and other diseases. London: J and J Robinson.

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Parry CH (1786)
Experiments relative to the medical effects of Turkey Rhubarb, and of the English Rhubarbs, No. I and No. II made on patients of the Pauper Charity. Letters and Papers of the Bath Society 11:431-453.

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Fowler T (1786)
Medical reports of the effects of arsenic in the cure of agues, remitting feveres and periodic headachs. London: J Johnson, pp 105-107.

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Sims RC (1791)
Letter VI. Letters and Papers of the Bath Society III: 486-487.

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Haygarth J (1793)
Sketch of a plan to exterminate the casual smallpox from Great Britain; and to introduce general inoculation. London: J Johnson

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Currie J (1797)
Medical reports on the effects of water, cold and warm, as a remedy in fever, and febrile diseases. Liverpool and London: M’Creery and Cadell.

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Haygarth J (1800)
Of the imagination, as a cause and as a cure of disorders of the body: exemplified by fictitious tractors, and epidemical convulsions. Bath: R. Crutwell.

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de Villalba J (1802)
Epidemiología Española. Madrid: D Fermin Villalpando.

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Lesassier Hamilton A (1816)
Dissertatio Medica Inauguralis De Synocho Castrensi [Inaugural medical dissertation on camp fever]. Edinburgh: J Ballantyne.

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Löhner G, on behalf of a Society of truth-loving men (1835)
Die Homoöopathischen Kochsalzversuche zu Nürnberg [The homeopathic salt trials in Nurnberg]. Nürnberg in März.

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Carlisle A (1839)
On the production of representations of objects by the action of light. Mechanics Journal p 329.

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Tessier JP (1852)
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Balfour TG (1854)
Quoted in West C. Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. London, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, p 600.

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Thompson T (1859)
Observations on the administration of ozonized oils. Medical and Chirurgical Transactions 42:349-360.

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Holmes OW (1861)
Currents and countercurrents in medical science with other addresses and essays. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1861.

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Semmelweis I (1861)
Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. [The etiology, concept, and prophylaxis of childbed fever]. Budapest and Vienna; Hartleben.

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Bennett JH (1865)
The restorative treatment of pneumonia. Edinburgh, AC Black.

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Wanscher O (1877)
Om Diphteritis og Croup - særligt med hensyn til Tracheostomien ved samme. [On diphtheria and croup - especially regarding tracheostomy in this condition]. Disputats [Thesis]. Jacob Lund: Kjøbenhavn, p 67-68.

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Keith T (1878)
Results of ovariotomy before and after antiseptics. BMJ 1878;2;590-593. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.929.590

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Hill B (1879)
Clinical lectures on stricture of the urethra. BMJ 1879;2;883-886.

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Storke EF, Martin R, Rosenkrans EM, Ford J, Schloemilch A, McDermott GC, Carlson OW (1880)
Final report of the Milwaukee test of the thirtieth dilution. Homoeopathic Times 7:12/280-1.

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Pasteur L (1881)
Compte rendu sommaire des expériences rates á Pouilly-le-Fort, prés Melun, sur la vaccination charbonneuse [A summary account of experiences at Pouilly-le-Fort, near Mélun, on anthrax vaccination]. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 92: 1378-1383.

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Champneys FH (1881)
On artificial respiration in still born children. The amount of ventilation secured by different methods. An experimental enquiry. Medical and Chirurgical Transactions 64 :41-86.

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Cook County Board of Commissioners (1882)
Proceedings, 1881-1882. Chicago, Illinois, 222-223.

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Reverdin J-L, Reverdin A (1883)
Note sur vingt-deux opérations de goitre, avec 3 pl. photographiques [Note on twenty two operations on goitre. Continuation and conclusion]. Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande 3:169-198, 233-278, 309-364.

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Kocher T (1883)
Ueber Kropfexstirpation und ihre Folgen [On goitre removal, and its consequences]. Archiv für Klinische Chirurgie 29:254-337.

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Rayleigh, The Lord (1885)
Address by the Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh. In: Report of the fifty-fourth meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; held at Montreal in August and September 1884. London: John Murray: 3-23.

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Hartridge G (1886)
Tobacco amblyopia. BMJ 1:200.

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Fry HD (1887)
The value of the antiseptic method in obstetric practice and its application to the forceps operation. JAMA 2 April, pp 388-390.

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Boxall, cited in Williams J (1888)
On the effect of ergot on the involution of the uterus. BMJ 1:229.

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Stuart W (1889)
A remarkable case of morphine addiction. BMJ 1:1051-52.

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Phillips J (1890)
On the analgesic value of antipyrin intra - and post - partum. Lancet 2:605-607.

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Behring EA, Boer NN, Kossel H (1893)
Zur Behandlung diphtheriekranker Menschen mit Diphtherieheilserum [On the treatment of diphtheria patients with curative diphtheria serum]. Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift 17:389-39.

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Roux E, Martin L, Chaillou A (1894)
Trois cent cas de diphthérie traité par le serum antidiphthérique. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur 8:640-661.

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Webster Fox L (1894)
Immediate capsulotomy following the removal of cataract. JAMA 22:837-39.

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Priestley J (1895)
On the value of eucalyptus oil as a disinfectant in scarlet fever. Lancet 1:861-863.

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Pregl F (1896)
Zwei weitere ergographische Versuchsreihen über die Wirkung orchistischen Extraktes [Two further ergographic experimental series on the effects of testicular extracts]. Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie 62:379-399.

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Winters JE (1896)
Clinical observations upon the use of antitoxin in diphtheria: A report of personal investigation of this treatment in the principal fever hospitals of Europe during the summer of 1895. Medical Record 49:877-893.

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Brown EH (1896)
Cholera and its treatment by preventive inoculation in the Darbhanga Jail. Indian Medical Gazette, July, 247-250.

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Vorderman AG (1897)
Onderzoek naar het verband tusschen den aard der rijstvoeding in de gevangenissen op Java en Madoera en het voorkomen van beri-beri onder de geïnterneerden. Batavia: Jav. Boekh. & Drukkerij.

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Fibiger J (1898)
Om serumbehandling af difteri [On treatment of diphtheria with serum]. Hospitalstidende 6:309-325.

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Langton J (1899)
A discussion on the treatment of hernia in children. BMJ 2:470-472.

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Clemow (1899)
Yersin serum treatment of plague. BMJ 1:48.

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Anonymous (1899)
Echoes and news: the chlorine treatment of diphtheria. Medical News 74:403.

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Williams FH (1899)
Scarlatina. Reports of societies. Boston Medical And Surgical Journal 141:348.

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Maitland CB (1900)
Methylene blue in malarial fever. BMJ 2:532-533.

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Celli A (1900)
The new prophylaxis against malaria in Lazio. Lancet 156; 4031:1603-1606.

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Park WH (1900)
The quantity of diphtheria antitoxin required in the treatment of diphtheria. Archives of Paediatrics 17:823-827.

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Celli A (1900)
La nuova profilassi della malaria nel Lazio [The new prophylaxis against malaria in Lazio]. Supplemento al Policlinico 6:1601-1606.

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Haffkine WM (1900)
On preventive inoculation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 65:252-271.

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Park WH (1900)
Use of diphtheria antitoxin in the treatment and prevention of diphtheria. JAMA 34: 902-904.

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Choksy NH (1900)
Professor Lustig’s plague serum. Lancet 2:291-292.

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Lustig A, Galeotti G (1901)
The prophylactic and curative treatment of plague. BMJ 1:206-208.

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Indian Plague Commission (1902)
Serum therapeutics. Investigations conducted by the commissioners. BMJ 1:1159-1160.

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Fehling H (1903)
Zur Prophylaxe und Therapie des Puerperalfiebers [On the prophylaxis and treatment of puerperal fever]. Muenchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 18 Aug.

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Waters EE (1903)
Malaria as seen in the Andamans penal settlement. Lancet 1:1657-62.

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Polverini G (1903)
Serumtherapie gegen Beulenpest Muenchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 50:649-651.

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Cushny AR, Peebles AR (1905)
The action of optical isomers. II. Hyoscines. J Physiology 32:501-510.

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Haffkine WM (1905)
Report on a series of 484 cases of plague treated with Lustig’s anti-plague serum. In: Bannerman WB, ed. Serum-therapy of plague in India. Scientific Memoirs by Officers of the Medical and Sanitary Departments of the Government of India. Calcutta, India: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, pp 27-36.

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Haffkine WM, Costello CT (1905)
Report on a series of 110 cases of plague treated with Terni’s anti-plague serum. In: Bannerman WB, ed. Serum-therapy of plague in India. Scientific Memoirs by Officers of the Medical and Sanitary Departments of the Government of India. Calcutta, India: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, pp 37-46.

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Haffkine WM, West WG (1905)
Report on a series of 70 cases of plague treated with Brazil’s anti-plague serum. In: Bannerman WB, ed. Serum-therapy of plague in India. Scientific Memoirs by Officers of the Medical and Sanitary Departments of the Government of India. Calcutta, India: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, pp 47-59.

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West WG (1905)
Report on a series of 68 cases of plague treated with Roux’ anti-plague serum. In: Bannerman WB, ed. Serum-therapy of plague in India. Scientific Memoirs by Officers of the Medical and Sanitary Departments of the Government of India. Calcutta, India: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, pp 60-7

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Cousin M (1905)
Des éruptions consecutives aux injections de sérum antidiphthérique et de leur traitement prophylactique par l’ingestion de clorure de calcium. Thèse pour le Doctorat en médicine. Paris : Jules Rousset, 36-44.

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Netter A (1906)
Efficacité de l’ingestion de chlorure de calcium comme moyen préventif des éruptions consecutives aux injections de sérum [Effect of the ingestion of calcium chloride for preventing eruptions following serum injections]. Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie 58:279-280.

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Goldberger J (1907)
Typhoid "bacillus carriers". In: Rosenau MJ, Lumsden LL, Kastle JH. Report on the origin and prevalence of typhoid fever in the District of Columbia. Hygienic Laboratory, Bulletin No 35, pp 167-174.

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Drake DJ (1907)
The treatment of dysentery by yellow santonine. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 10:351-352.

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Fletcher W (1907)
Rice and beri-beri: preliminary report on an experiment conducted in the Kuala Lumpur Insane Asylum. Lancet 1:1776-1779.

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Rivers WHR (1908)
The influence of alcohol and other drugs on fatigue. London: Edward Arnold.

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Gewin J (1908)
Chlorkalzium gegen die Serumkrankheit [Calcium chloride against serum sickness]. Muenchener Medizinische Wochenshcrift 50:2670-2671.

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Choksy NH (1908)
On recent progress in serum-therapy of plague. BMJ 1:1282-1284.

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Editorial (1909)
The reporting of unsuccessful cases. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 161:263-263.

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Jansen H (1910)
Behandling med Radiumemanation særlig ved gigtiske Lidelser [Treatment with radium emanation especially with rheumatic diseases]. Ugeskrift for Læger 72:1333-48.

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Döderlein D (1910)
The origin and prevention of puerperal fever. BMJ 2:1222-24.

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Freeman J (1910)
Vaccine therapy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 3:97-101.

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Hollingworth HL (1911)
The influence of caffeine on mental and motor efficiency. Archives of Psychology/Columbia Contributions to Philosophy and Psychology 20:iii-v

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Freeman RG (1912)
Serum treatment of pneumonia. JAMA 59:140.

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Park WH (1912)
The role of animal experimentation in the discoveries leading to our present knowledge of the etiology, prevention and cure of diphtheria. JAMA 53:453-459.

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Advisory Committee on Plague Investigations in India (1912)
The serum treatment of human plague. Journal of Hygiene. Plague Supplement II, LVI:326-39.

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Rosenow EC, Hektoen L (1913)
Treatment of pneumonia with partially autolyzed pneumococci. JAMA 61:2203-4.

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Hewlett AW (1913)
Clinical effects of “natural” and “synthetic” sodium salicylate. JAMA 61:319-321.

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Carver AE (1914)
Pneumosan in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Lancet 2:372-373.

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Wright AE, Morgan WP, Colebrook L, Dodgson RW (1914)
Observations on prophylactic inoculation against pneumococcus infections, and on the results which have been achieved by it. Lancet 1:87-95

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Wright AE (1914)
On pharmaco-therapy and preventive inoculation applied to pneumonia in the African Native. London: Constable, p 84.

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Baer JL (1915)
Scopolamin-morphin treatment in labor. JAMA 64:1723-1728.

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Plass ED (1916)
Post partum care of perineum. Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital 27:107-109.

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Leake JP (1917)
Bacterial vaccine therapy. JAMA 69:631-632.

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Von Sholly AI, Blum J, Smith L (1917)
The therapeutic value of pertussis vaccine in whooping cough. JAMA 68:1451-1456.

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Sollmann T (1917)
The crucial test of therapeutic evidence. JAMA 69:198-199.

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Kyes P (1918)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with an anti-pneumococcus serum. Journal of Medical Research 38:495-501.

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Avata AA, Woodyatt RT (1918)
Treatment of facial erysipelas at Camp Cody, N.M. JAMA 71:900-01.

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McCoy GW, Murray VB, Teeter AL (1918)
The failure of a bacterial vaccine as a prophylactic against influenza. JAMA 71:1997.

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Wiltshire HW (1918)
Note on the value of germinated beans in the treatment of scurvy, and some points in prophylaxis. Lancet 2:811-813.

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Bingel A (1918)
Über Behandlung der Diphtherie mit gewöhnlichem Pferdeserum [On the treatment of diphtheria with normal horse serum]. Deutsches Archiv für Klinische Medizin 125:284-332.

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Lees D (1919)
Detoxicated vaccines in the treatment of gonorrhœa: the value of the complement-deviation test in controlling the treatment and estimating its therapeutic effect. Lancet 1:1107-1111.

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Leighton Kesteven H (1919)
A study of epidemic influenza in Australia. Lancet 2:1189-91.

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Hinton WA, Kane ES (1919)
Use of influenza vaccine as a prophylactic – an experimental study conducted by the Massachusetts State Department of Health. Journal of the Tennessee State Medical Association 11:442-446.

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Gray AW (1920)
Antipneumococcus serum (Kyes’s) in the treatment of pneumonia. American Journal of Medical Sciences 159:885-891.

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Acton HW (1920)
Researches on the treatment of benign tertian fever. Lancet 1:1257-1261.

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Cecil RL, Larsen NP (1922)
Clinical and bacteriologic study of one thousand cases of lobar pneumonia. JAMA 79:343-349.

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Johnston RA, Siddall RS (1922)
Is the usual method of preparing patients for delivery beneficial or necessary? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 4:645-650.

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Kopeloff N, Kirby GH (1923)
Focal infection and mental disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 3:149-197.

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McCall WA (1923)
How to experiment in education. New York: Macmillan.

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Greenwood M (1924)
Is the statistical method of any value in medical research? Lancet 2: 153-158.

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Oliver WW, Stoller EA (1925)
Notes on the therapeutic value of pneumococcus antibody solution subcutaneously administered in lobar pneumonia. Archives of Internal Medicine 35:267-286.

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Moir JC (1925)
Comparison of the narcotic effects of the two hyoscines (scopolomaines). BMJ 2:514-515.

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Fletcher W (1925)
The relative efficiency of quinine and quinidine in the treatment of malaria. In: Medical Research Council. Clinical comparisons of quinine and quinidine. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, pp 17-27.

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Park WH (1925)
Scarlet fever: etiology, prevention by immunization, and antitoxic treatment. JAMA 85:1180-1186.

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Diehl HS (1925)
Value of Chlorin in the treatment of colds. JAMA 84:1629-32.

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Medical Research Council (1925)
Report of the committee upon cinchona derivatives and malaria. In: Clinical comparisons of quinine and quinidine. London: HMSO, pp 5-16.

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Wagner-Jauregg J (1926)
Die moderne Therapie der Neurolues [On modern therapy for neurosyphilis]. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin. Achtundreissigster Kongress. München: Bergmann, p 34-62.

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Mauel W (1926)
Ist das Omnadin bei kruppöser Pneumonie wirksam [Is Omnadin effective in pneumonia with croup]? Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 73:652.

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Sinton JA (1926)
Studies in Malaria, with special reference to Treatment. Part I. Introduction and routine methods. Indian Journal of Medical Research 13: 565-577.

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Sinton JA (1926)
Studies in Malaria, with special reference to treatment. Part II. The effects of treatment on the prevention of relapse in infections with Plasmodium Falciparum. Indian Journal of Medical Research 13: 579-601.

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Harries (1927)
Discussion on the serum treatment of scarlet fever. Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 20:1175–1176.

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Symmers D, Lewis KM (1927)
The antitoxin treatment of erysipelas: observations in one hundred and thirty-one patients at Bellevue Hospital. JAMA 89:880-2.

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Gordon E (1927)
Treatment of scarlet fever with streptococcus antitoxin. JAMA 88:382-5.

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Sinton JA (1927)
Studies in Malaria, with special reference to treatment. Part VII. The intravenous injection of sodium stovarsol in the treatment of benign tertian malaria. Indian Journal of Medical Research 15:287-299.

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Ferry NS, Gordon EJ, Munro FW, Steele AH, Fisher LW (1928)
Clinical results with measles streptococcus toxin and antitoxin. JAMA 91:1277-1280.

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Cecil RL, Sutliff WD (1928)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with concentrated anti-pneumococcus serum. JAMA 91:2036-2040.

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Bullowa JGM (1928)
Use of antipneumococcic refined serum in lobar pneumonia: data necessary for a comparison between cases treated with serum and cases not so treated, and the importance of a significant control series of cases. JAMA 90: 1354-1358.

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McCann WS (1928)
The serum treatment of erysipelas. JAMA 91:78-81.

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Ross WC, Bagchi KN , Roy BC (1928)
The bacteriophage in cholera. Indian Journal of Medical Research 15:965-968.

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Park WH, Bullowa JGM, Rosenbluth NM (1928)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with refined specific antibacterial serum. JAMA 91:1503-1508.

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Colebrook D (1929)
Irradiation and health. Medical Research Council Special Report Series No.131.

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Bullowa JGM (1929)
The serum treatment and its evaluation in lobar pneumonia. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 5:328-362.

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Heald CB (1929)
The present position of ultraviolet light therapy. BMJ 1:94-97.

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Joe A, Swyer R (1929)
A study of passive immunisation in scarlet fever. Lancet 1:177-179.

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Freeman J (1929)
Discussion on the action and use of ephedrine. Proceeding of Royal Society of Medicine 22:1369.

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Pearce RM (1929)
The treatment of influenza with S.U.P. 36. BMJ 2:663-666.

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Sinton JA, Bird W (1929)
Studies in Malaria, with special reference to treatment. Part XI: The Cinchona alkaloids in the treatment of benign tertian malaria. Indian Journal of Medical Research 16: 725-746.

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Finland M (1930)
The serum treatment of lobar pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine 202:1244-1247.

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Cecil RL, Plummer N (1930)
Pneumococcus type I pneumonia - a study of eleven hundred and sixty-one cases, with especial reference to specific therapy. JAMA 95:1547-1553.

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Kauders O (1930)
Ueber Nachbehandlung nach Malariatherapie [On the management of patients after malaria therapy]. Deutsche Medizinishe Wochenshcrift 61:400-401.

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Wyckoff J, Du Bois EF, Woodruff IO (1930)
The therapeutic value of digitalis in pneumonia. JAMA 95:1243-1249.

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Leighton G, McKinlay PL (1930)
Milk consumption and the growth of schoolchildren. Department of Health for Scotland. Edinburgh and London: HM Stationery Office.

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Iversen P (1930)
Nogle bemærkninger om komplikationerne til parotitis epidemica og forsøg paa behandling med rekonvalescentserum [Treatment of complications of epidemic mumps with the serum of convalescents]. Ugeskrift for Læger 92:167-169.

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Physicians to the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (1930)
A report on lobar pneumonia: treatment by concentrated antiserum. Lancet 2:1390-1394.

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Wyckoff J, DeGraaf AC, Parent S (1930)
Influence of salicylates on the heart in rheumatic fever. American Heart Journal 5:568-573.

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Benson WT (1930)
The treatment of erysipelas with vaccines. Lancet 2:1286-289.

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De Quervain JF (1930)
Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse der schweizerischen Sammelstatistik über Brustkrebs von 1911-1915. [Summary of the results of the aggregated Swiss hospital statistics on breast cancer from 1911-1915]. Bern-Berlin: Huber.

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Friend GE (1931)
Amidopyrin in measles. BMJ 1:33.

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Amberson JB, McMahon BT, Pinner M (1931)
A clinical trial of sanocrysin in pulmonary tuberculosis. American Review of Tuberculosis 24:401-435.

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Doull JA, Hardy M, Clark JH, Herman NB (1931)
The effect of irradiation with ultra-violet light on the frequency of attacks of upper respiratory disease (common colds). American Journal of Hygiene 13:460-77.

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Green HN, Pindar D, Davis G, Mellanby E (1931)
Diet as a prophylactic agent against puerperal sepsis. BMJ 2:595-598.

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Roos H (1931)
Behandling av kruppös pneumoni med kininjektioner [Treatment of acute pneumonia with quinine injections]. Finska Läkaresällskapets Handlingar 73:778-789.

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Naidu BPB, Mackie FP (1931)
The serum therapy of plague. Lancet 2:893-897.

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Swyer R (1931)
Antigenic properties of diphtheria toxoid-antitoxin floccules. Lancet 1:632-634.

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Manson-Bahr P (1931)
Modern methods of treatment of intestinal amœbiasis. Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 24:1538–1548.

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Sutliff WD, Finland M (1931)
Type I lobar pneumonia treated with concentrated pneumococcic antibody (Felton). The clinical course. JAMA 96:1465-1469.

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Davis WE (1931)
The incidence of untoward symptoms following the intravenous injection of sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein in cholecystography. New England Journal of Medicine 205:534-6.

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Koenigsberger E (1931)
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The treatment of Malaria: Study of synthetic drugs, as compared with Quinine, in the therapeutics and prophylaxis of Malaria. Bulletin of the Health Organisation, Vol VI, no. 6.

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Use of sulfanilamide after transurethral prostatectomy. JAMA 110:1887-90.

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The drug treatment of angina pectoris due to coronary artery disease. American Journal of Medical Science 197:774-782.

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The drug treatment of hyperpiesia. British Heart Journal 1:199-228.

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Use of benzedrine in the depressed phase of the psychotic state. Ohio State Medical Journal 35:39-45.

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Cutts M, Gormly CF, Burgess AM (1939)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with sulfapyridine. New England Journal of Medicine 221:263-266.

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Vitamin E: (Section of Therapeutics and Pharmacology). Proc R Soc Med. 3: 853–864.

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The treatment of Pneumococcic pneumonia with concentrated rabbit serum. JAMA 113: 1314-6.

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Lanman TH, Heyl HL (1939)
Empyema in Children. New England Journal of Medicine 221:1003-1009.

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Murless BC (1939)
Effect of follicular hormone on menopausal flushes. Lancet 233:1205-1206.

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Pasricha CL, de Monte AJH, Chatterjee BC, Mian AS (1939)
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Effects of a supplement of vitamin B (adsorbate) on the growth of infants. BMJ 2:80-82.

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Menten ML, Macdonald RR, Brönykovsky N (1940)
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Pratt JG, Rhine JB, Smith BM, Stuart CE, Greenwood JA (1940)
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French JO, Hooker ML, Vause RB, Robinson AL (1940)
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Jordan JH, Blakelock, Johnston WR (1940)
Treatment of cerebrospinal fever with suphapyridine. BMJ 1:1005-1008.

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Don CSD, Luxton RW, Donald HR, Ramsay WA, Macartney DW, Stewart Smith G, Adderley CH (1940)
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Gaisford WF, Whitelaw W (1940)
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Rhoads PS, Afremow ML (1940)
Sulfanilamide in treatment of sore throat due to hemolytic streptococci: with controls. JAMA 114:942-3.

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Gregory KK, West EJ, Stevens RE (1940)
Epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis (meningococcic): the treatment of 113 patients with antimeningococcus serum, meningococcus antitoxin and sulfanilamide. JAMA 115:1091-5.

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Wagle PM, Sokhey SH, Dikshit BB, Ganapathy K (1941)
Chemotherapy in plague. Indian Medical Gazette 76:29-32.

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Plummer N, Liebmann J, Solomon S, Kammerer WH, Kalkstein M, Ensworth HK (1941)
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Reported in: Sickness in Salonica: my first, worst, and most successful clinical trial. BMJ 1984;289:1726-1727.

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Studies on old age pneumonia. II. Prophylactic effect of pneumococcus polysaccharide against pneumonia. Archives of Internal Medicine 61:304-319.

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The treatment of bacilliary (Flexner) dysentery with sulphanilylguanidine. BMJ 2:497-501.

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Sulphathiazole and sulphapyridine in acute gonorrhoea. Lancet 2:9-10.

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Top FH, Young DC (1941)
The treatment of moderately severe scarlet fever: A study of alternate patients treated with sulfanilamide, convalescent serum and scarlet fever antitoxin. JAMA 117:2056-60.

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Cooper ML, Zucker RL, Wagoner S, Brown EW, Bennett R (1941)
Sulfathiazole for acute diarrhea and dysentery of infants and children. JAMA 117:1520-3.

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Ewalt JR, Ebaugh FG (1941)
Treatment of dementia paralytica: A five year comparative study of artificial fever therapy and therapeutic malaria in two hundred and thirty-two cases. JAMA 116:2474-77.

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Alstead S (1941)
Action of Bismuth Carbonate in gastric disease. Lancet 238: 420-423.

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Pertussis prophylaxis with two doses of alum-precipitated vaccine. Public Health Reports 56:1535-1546.

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People's League of Health (1942)
Nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers: interim report. Lancet 2:10-12.

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Kendrick PL (1942)
Use of alum-treated pertussis vaccine, and alum-precipitated combined pertussis vaccine and diphtheria toxoid, for active immunization. American Journal of Public Health 32:615-626.

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Studies on the control of acute respiratory infections: preliminary report on the oral administration of sulfadiazine at the onset of acute respiratory illnesses. JAMA 119:783-5.

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Patulin in the common cold. IV: Biological properties: extended trial in the common cold. Lancet 2:630-635.

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Field study of alum-precipitated combined pertussis vaccine and diphtheria toxoid for active immunization. American Journal of Hygiene 38:193-202.

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The effect of supplements of vitamins and minerals on the health of girls. BMJ 2:519.

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Harper AA, MacKay IFS, Raper HS, Camm GL (1943)
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British Homoeopathic Society (1943)
Report on mustard gas experiments (Glasgow and London). British Homoeopathic Journal 33:1-12.

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Sigler LH, Tulgan J (1943)
Treatment of angina pectoris by testosterone propionate. New York State Journal of Medicine 43:1424-1428.

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Patulin in the common cold. Lancet 2:684.

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Lepper MH, Sweet LK, Dowling HF (1943)
The treatment of meningococcic infections with sulphadiazine and sulphamerazine. JAMA 123:134-138.

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Browne FJ (1943)
On the value of vitamin B1 in prevention of toxaemia of pregnancy. BMJ 1:445-446.

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Morgan TN, Wylie-Smith R (1943)
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Payne WW (1943)
Vitamin C in school-children. Lancet 41(6252):819-820.

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The prevention of respiratory tract bacterial infections. JAMA 126:88-89.

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Scadding JG (1944)
Comparative effects of sulphonamide drugs in mild bacillary dysentery. Lancet 1:784-786.

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Fraser TN (1944)
Gold treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 4:71-75.

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Dieckmann WJ, Adair FL, Michel H, Kramer S, Dunkle F, Arthur B, Costin M, Campbell A, Wensley AC, Lorang E (1944)
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Florey ME, Williams REO (1944)
Hand infections treated with penicillin. Lancet 1:73-81.

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Stansfeld JM, Francis AE, Stuart-Harris CH (1944)
Laboratory and clinical trials of Patulin. Lancet 2:370-372.

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Commission on Influenza (1944)
A clinical evaluation of vaccination against influenza. JAMA 124:982-985.

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Wright J, Cruickshank R, Gunn W (1944)
The control of dust-borne streptococcal infection in measles wards. BMJ 1:611-614.

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Beattie J, Marshall J (1944)
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Yeomans A, Snyder JC, Murray ES, Zarafonetis CJD, Ecke RS (1944)
The therapeutic efficacy of para-aminobenzoic acid in louse borne typhus fever. JAMA 126:349-56.

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Cecil RL, Plummer N, Smillie WG (1944)
Sulfadiazine in the treatment of the common cold. JAMA 124:8-14.

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The treatment of tonsillitis with small doses of sulfonamides. JAMA 126:93-4.

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Holling HE, McArdle B, Trotter WR (1944)
Prevention of seasickness by drugs. Lancet 243:127-129.

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Boyd JSK, Portnoy B (1944)
Bacteriophage therapy in bacillary dysentery. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 37:243-262.

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Medical Research Council (1944)
Clinical trial of patulin in the common cold. Lancet 2:373-5.

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Fletcher RT, Scadding JG (1945)
Observations on the MI room treatment of “acute simple diarrhoea” with sulphaguanidine. Unpublished manuscript.

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Wilson C, Pollock MR, Harris AD (1945)
Therapeutic trial of methionine in infective hepatitis. BMJ 1:399-401.

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Higgins G, O'Brien JRP, Peters RA, Stewart A, Witts LJ (1945)
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Darmady EM (1945)
The effects of protein diet on infective hepatitis. BMJ 1:795-797.

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Scadding JG (1945)
Sulphonamides in bacillary dysentery. Lancet 2:549-553.

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MacLeod CM, Hodges RG, Heidelberger M, Bernhard WG (1945)
Prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia by immunization with specific capsular polysaccharides. Journal of Experimental Medicine 82:445-465.

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Rosenthal SR, Blahd M, Leslie EI (1945)
Ten years’ experience with BCG (experimental and clinical). Journal of Pediatrics 26:470-80.

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McFarlan AM, Topley E, Fisher M (1945)
Trial of whooping-cough vaccine in city and residential nursery groups. BMJ 2:205-208.

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Hill IGW, Guest AI (1945)
Prevention of sea-sickness in assault craft. BMJ 2:6–11.

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Havens WP, Paul JR (1945)
Prevention of infectious hepatitis with gamma globulin. JAMA 129:270-272.

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Gunther M (1945)
Sore nipples - causes and prevention. Lancet 2:590-593.

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Bahlke AM, Perkins JE (1945)
Gamma globulin in poliomyelitis. JAMA 129:1146-1150.

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Wright J (1945)
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Grossman EB, Stewart SG, Stokes J (1945)
Post-transfusion hepatitis in battle casualties: and a study of its prophylaxis by means of human immune serum globulin. JAMA 129:991-4.

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Gellis SS, Stokes J, Forster HW, Brother GM, Hall WM (1945)
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Richardson JS, Suffern WS (1945)
A therapeutic trial of choline chloride in infective hepatitis. BMJ 2:156-157.

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Wolman M, Omar M, Abu-Taimb M (1945)
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Experience with BCG vaccine in the control of tuberculosis among North American Indians. Public Health Reports 61:802-820.

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The early failure of breast feeding: a clinical study of its causes and their prevention. Archives of Disease in Childhood 21:1-12.

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Artificial sunlight treatment in industry. MRC Industrial Health Research Board Report No. 89. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.

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Fatti L, Florey ME, Joules H, Humphrey JH, Sakula J (1946)
Acutely infected pleural effusions: techniques of penicillin treatment. Lancet 1:295-300

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Jellinek EM (1946)
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Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1988)
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Rubenstein LV, Calkins DR, Young RT, Cleary PD, Fink A, Kosecoff J, Jette AM, Davies AR, Delbanco TL, Brook RH (1989)
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Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1990)
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Crowley P, Chalmers I, Keirse MJNC (1990)
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McCusker J, Stoddard Am, Zapka JG, Morrison CS, Zorn M, Lewis BF (1992)
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Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Grimes DA, Altman DG (1994)
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Chalmers I, Altman DG (1995)
Systematic Reviews. London: BMJ Publications.

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Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration (1995)
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Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG (1995)
Empirical evidence of bias: dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 273:408-412.

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Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Altman DG, Grimes DA, Doré CJ (1995)
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Moher D, Jadad AR, Nichol G, Penman M, Tugwell P, Walsh S (1995)
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Blumenthal D, Gluck M, Louis KS, Stoto MA, Wise D. (1996)
Academic-industry relationships in the life sciences - an industry survey. New England Journal of Medicine 334:368-73.

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Clarke M, Chalmers I (1998)
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Mahon JL, Laupacis A, Hodder RV, McKim DA, Paterson NA, Wood TE, Donner A (1999)
Theophylline for irreversible chronic airflow limitation: a randomized study comparing n of 1 trials to standard practice. Chest 115:38-48. PMID: 9925061

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Harden A, Weston R, Oakley A (1999)
A review of the effectiveness and appropriateness of peer-delivered health promotion interventions for young people. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London, November.

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Djulbegovic B, Lacevic M, Cantor A, Fields KK, Bennett CL, Adams JR, Kuderer NM, Lyman GH (2000)
The uncertainty principle and industry-sponsored research. Lancet 356:635-638.

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Donner A, Klar N (2000)
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Biglan A, Ary DV, Smolkowski K, Duncan T, Black C (2000)
A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control 9:24-32.

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Yusuf S (2000)
Challenges in the conduct and interpretation of phase II (pilot) randomized trials. . American Heart Journal 139:S136-42.

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Egger M, Davey Smith G, Altman DG (2001)
Systematic reviews in health care. London: BMJ Books.

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Hahn S, Williamson PR, Hutton JL (2002)
Investigation of within-study selective reporting in clinical research: follow-up of applications submitted to a local research ethics committee. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8:353-359.

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Kunz R, Vist G, Oxman AD (2002)
Randomisation to protect against selection bias in healthcare trials. Cochrane Database of Methodology Reviews 4:MR000012

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Wagner AK, Soumerai SB, Zhang F, Ross-Degnan D (2002)
Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series studies in medication use research. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 27:299–309.

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Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O (2003)
Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ 326:1167-70.

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Melander H, Ahlqvist-Rastad J, Meijer G, Beermann B (2003)
Evidence b(i)ased medicine - selective reporting from studies sponsored by pharmaceutical industry: review of studies in new drug applications. BMJ 326:1171-3.

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Wager E, Field EA, Grossman L (2003)
Good Publication Practice for pharmaceutical companies. Current Medical Research and Opinion 19:149-54.

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Thomas J, Harden A, Oakley A, Oliver S, Sutcliffe K, Rees R, Brunton G, Kavanagh J (2004)
Integrating qualitative research with trials in systematic reviews. BMJ 328:1010-1012.

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Whittington CJ, Kendall T, Fonagy P, Cottrell D, Cotgrove A, Boddington E (2004)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data. Lancet; 363:1341-1345.

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Chan AW, Krleža-Jerić K, Schmid I, Altman D (2004)
Outcome reporting bias in randomized trials funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;171:735-40.

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Chan A-W, Hròbjartsson A, Haahr M, Gøtzsche PC, Altman DG (2004)
Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: Comparison of protocols to publications. JAMA 291:2457-2465.

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Montori VM, Devereaux PJ, Adhikari NK, Burns KE, Eggert CH, Briel M, Lacchetti C, Leung TW, Darling E, Bryant DM, Bucher HC, Schunemann HJ, Meade MO, Cook DJ, Erwin PJ, Sood A, Sood R, Lo B, Thompson CA, Zhou Q, Mills E, Guyatt GH (2005)
Randomized trials stopped early for benefit: a systematic review. JAMA 294:2203-2209.

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Psaty BM, Kronmal RA (2006)
Reporting mortality findings in trials of Rofecoxib for Alzheimer disease or cognitive impairment. JAMA 95:2787-2789.

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Simpson SH, Eurich DT, Majumdar SR, Padwal RS, T Tsuyuki RT, Varney J, Johnson JA (2006)
A meta-analysis of the association between adherence to drug therapy and mortality. BMJ 2006;333;15;doi:10.1136/bmj.38875.675486.55.

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Yank V, Rennie D, Bero LA (2007)
Financial ties and concordance between results: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 335:1202-5. doi:10.1136/bmj.39376.447211.

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Djulbegovic B, Kumar A, Soares HP, Hozo I, Bepler G, Clarke M, Bennett CL (2008)
Treatment success in cancer: new cancer treatment successes identified in phase 3 randomized controlled trials conducted by the national cancer institute-sponsored cooperative oncology groups, 1955 to 2006. Archives of Internal Medicine. 168:632-42.

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Trotta F, Apolone G, Garattini S, Tafuri G (2008)
Stopping a trial early in oncology: for patients or for industry? Annals of Oncology Feb 29; doi:10.1093/annonc/mdn042.

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Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R (2008)
Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. New England Journal of Medicine 358:252-60.

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Rising K, Bacchetti P, Bero L (2008)
Reporting bias in drug trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration: review of publication and presentation. PLoS Med 5(11): e217. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050217

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Kramer MS, Martin RM, Sterne JA, Shapiro S, Mourad D, Platt RW (2009)
The double jeopardy of clustered measurement and cluster randomisation. BMJ 339:503-505.

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Bassler D, Briel M, Montori VM, Lane M, Glasziou P, Zhou Q, Heels-Ansdell D, Walter SD, Guyatt GH; STOPIT-2 Study Group (2010)
Stopping randomized trials early for benefit and estimation of treatment effects: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. JAMA. 303:1180-7.

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Emerson GB, Warme WJ, Wolf FM, Heckman JD, Brand RA, Leopold SS (2010)
Testing for the presence of positive-outcome bias in peer review. Archives of Internal Medicine 170:1934-1939.

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Sena ES, Briscoe CL, Howells DW, Donnan GA, Sandercock PA, Macleod MR (2010)
Factors affecting the apparent efficacy and safety of tissue plasminogen activator in thrombotic occlusion models of stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 30:1905-13.

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Bafeta A, Dechartres A, Trinquart L, Yavchitz A, Boutron I, Ravaud P (2012)
Impact of single centre status on estimates of intervention effects in trials with continuous outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 344:e813.

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Turner EH, Knoepflmacher D, Shapley L (2012)
Publication bias in antipsychotic trials: an analysis of efficacy comparing the published literature to the US Food and Drug Administration database. PLoS Med 9(3):e1001189.

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Savović J, Jones HE, Altman DG, Harris RJ, Jüni P, Pildal J, Als-Nielsen B, Balk EM, Gluud C, Gluud LL, Ioannidis JPA, Schulz KF, Beynon R, Welton NJ, Wood L, Moher D, Deeks JJ, Sterne JAC (2012)
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Connolly SJ, Philippon F, Longtin Y, Casanova A, Birnie DH, Exner DV, Dorian P, Prakash R, Alings M, Krahn AD (2013)
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Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Hama R, Thompson MJ, Spencer EA, Onakpoya I, Mahtani KR, Nunan D, Howick J, Heneghan CJ (2014)
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De Barra M, Erikson K, Strimling P (2014)
How feedback biases give ineffective medical treatments a good reputation. Journal of Medical Internet Research Res 16:e193. doi:10.2196/jmir.3214

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Fretheim A, Zhang F, Ross-Degnan D, Oxman AD, Cheyne H, Foy R, Goodacre S, Herrin J, Kerse N, McKinlay RJ, Wright A, Soumerai SB (2014)
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Stockwell MS, CaCamargo S, Ramakrishnan R, Holleran S, Findley SE, Kukafka R, Hofstetter AM, Fernandez N, Vawdrey DK (2015)
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Tudur Smith C, Marcucci M, Nolan SJ, Iorio A, Sudell M, Riley R, Rovers MM, Williamson PR (2016)
Individual participant data meta-analyses compared with meta-analyses based on aggregate data. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 9. Art. No.: MR000007.DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000007.pub3.

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Show


Hróbjartsson A, Gøtzsche PC, Gluud C (1988).
The controlled clinical trial turns 100 years: Fibiger’s trial of serum treatment of diphtheria. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (1998)
Clinical trials in British medicine 1858 – 1948, with special reference to the development of the randomised controlled trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
The use of historical controls and concurrent controls to assess the effects of sulphonamides, 1936-1945. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Armitage P (2002).
Randomisation and alternation: a note on Diehl et al. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
An early Medical Research Council controlled trial of vitamins for preventing infection. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Olsen SF (2002).
The People’s League of Health trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Silverman WA†, Chalmers I (2002).
Casting and drawing lots: a time-honoured way of dealing with uncertainty and for ensuring fairness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Scadding JG (2002).
Reflections on my studies of the effects of sulphonamide drugs in bacillary dysentery in Egypt, 1943-1944. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Clarke M (2002).
J Guy Scadding and the move from alternation to randomization. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doll R (2003).
Controlled trials testing two or more treatments simultaneously. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2003).
A controlled trial using a factorial design reported in 1946. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
The contribution of William Fletcher’s 1907 report to finding a cause and cure for beriberi. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Senn SJ (2003).
Cushny and Peebles and optical isomers, 1905. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Thalidomide: an unanticipated adverse effect. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Aspirin: an unanticipated beneficial effect. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Adolf Bingel (1879-1953). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stoll S (2004).
Paul Martini’s Methodology of therapeutic investigation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Diaz M, Neuhauser D (2004).
Lessons from using randomization to assess gold treatment for tuberculosis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hampton J (2004).
An early parallel group trial in cardiology. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cochrane AL, Blythe M (2004).
Sickness in Salonica. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Houston C (2004).
Ferguson’s BCG research – Canada’s first randomized clinical trial? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Clarke M (2004).
The 1944 patulin trial of the British Medical Research Council: an example of how concerted common purpose can get reliable answers to important questions very quickly. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Klar N, Donner A (2004).
The impact of E.F. Lindquist’s text “Statistical Analysis in Educational Research” on cluster randomisation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Kaptchuk TJ (2004).
Early use of blind assessment in a homeopathic scientific experiment. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Elwood P (2004).
The first randomized trial of aspirin for heart attack and the advent of systematic overviews of trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J (2004).
The MRC randomized trial of streptomycin and its legacy: a view from the clinical front line. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2004).
Ambroise Paré’s accounts of new methods for treating gunshot wounds and burns. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Edwards MV (2004)
Control and the therapeutic trial 1918 – 1948. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Spanager L (2005).
Jansen’s 1910 use of a single blind experiment to assess the effects of radioactive water on rheumatic diseases. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2005).
Two controlled trials of supplementary feeding of British school children in the 1920s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hemminki E (2005).
Commentary on an early placebo controlled trial in Finland. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2005).
Mesmer’s 1780 proposal for a controlled trial to test his method of treatment using ‘Animal Magnetism’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Davey Smith G (2006).
Capitalising on Mendelian randomization to assess the effects of treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vessey MP (2006).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2006).
The Kendrick-Eldering-(Frost) pertussis vaccine field trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jefferson T (2006).
Why the MRC randomized trials of whooping cough (pertussis) vaccines remain important more than half a century after they were done. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stolberg M (2006).
Inventing the randomized double-blind trial: The Nürnberg salt test of 1835. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2006).
Joseph Goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2006).
Archie Cochrane (1909-1988). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J (2006).
John Crofton (1912-2009). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2007).
James Angus Doull and the well-controlled common cold. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M, Chalmers I (2007).
A puzzling omission in a great medical textbook edited by a pioneer of controlled trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2007).
Use of rotation to allocate patients to homeopathic or regular medical services in Cook County Hospital, Chicago, 1882. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bastian H (2007).
Lucy Wills (1888-1964), the life and research of an adventurous independent woman. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH (2008).
Jesse Bullowa, specific treatment for pneumonia, and the development of the controlled clinical trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jick H (2008).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs: a brief personal history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Reid CM (2008).
Donald Darnley Reid (1914-1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2008).
A 1955 clinical trial report that changed my career. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Toth B (2009).
19th century controlled trials to test whether belladonna prevents scarlet fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cox DR (2009).
Randomization for concealment. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wessely S (2009).
Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: the need to test untested theories. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Furberg CD (2009).
How should one analyse and interpret clinical trials in which patients don’t take the treatments assigned to them? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Löwy I (2010).
Martin Arrowsmith’s clinical trial: scientific precision and heroic medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell and the birth of randomized trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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JLL Bulletin Editors (2010).
Commentary on Rapport général sur les prix décernés en 1862. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale de Médecine XXVI, Paris: Ballière, p xxii-xxxv. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Why the 1948 MRC trial of streptomycin used treatment allocation based on random numbers. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dickersin K, Chalmers I (2010).
Recognising, investigating and dealing with incomplete and biased reporting of clinical research: from Francis Bacon to the World Health Organisation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell (1904-1968). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Adolf Bingel’s blinded, controlled comparison of different anti-diphtheritic sera in 1918. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Edwards M (2010).
Dora Colebrook and the evaluation of light therapy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gluud C (2010).
Danish contributions to the evaluation of serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
Park’s story and Winters’ tale: alternate allocation clinical trials in turn of the Century America. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ferroni E, Jefferson T, Gachelin G (2011).
Angelo Celli and research on the prevention of malaria in Italy a century ago. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Kaptchuk TJ (2011).
A brief history of the evolution of methods to control observer biases in tests of treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Dukan E, Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
The advent of fair treatment allocation schedules in clinical trials during the 19th and early 20th centuries. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gartlehner G, Stepper K (2011).
Julius Wagner-Jauregg: pyrotherapy, Simultanmethode, and ‘racial hygiene’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2011).
The origins of Austin Bradford Hill’s classic textbook of medical statistics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2012).
Adolphe Vorderman’s 1897 study on beriberi: an example of scrupulous efforts to avoid bias. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Mann H, Djulbegovic B (2012).
Comparator bias: why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marušić A, Fatović-Ferenčić S (2012).
Adoption of the double dummy trial design to reduce observer bias in testing treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2013).
Francis Bacon’s comments on the power of negative observations in his Novum Organum, first published in 1620. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2013).
Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis’ studies of death in childbirth. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2013).
UK Medical Research Council and multicentre clinical trials: from a damning report to international recognition. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ramanna M (2014).
Nasarwanji Hormusji Choksy (1861-1939), a pioneer of controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2014).
The mustard gas experiments done by the British Homoeopathic Society for the Ministry of Home Security, 1941-42. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Milne I, Chalmers I (2014).
Alexander Lesassier Hamilton’s 1816 report of a controlled trial of bloodletting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dickersin K, Chalmers F (2014).
Thomas C Chalmers (1917-1995): a pioneer of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hampton J (2015).
Therapeutic fashion and publication bias: the case of anti-arrhythmic drugs in heart attack. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2015).
Why did I become a clinician-trialist? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (2015).
Why the MRC Therapeutic Trials Committee didn’t introduce controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Schlesselman JJ (2015).
Jerome Cornfield’s Bayesian approach to assessing interim results in clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wager E (2015).
Good Publication Practice 3: reflections on becoming a guideline grandmother. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

View

Gachelin G, Garner P, Ferroni E, Tröhler U, Chalmers I (2016).
Evaluating Cinchona bark and quinine for treating and preventing malaria. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

View

Peto J (2016).
Reflections on the importance of strict adherence to treatment protocols: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children in the 1970s in the US and the UK. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Peto R (2016).
Reflections on the design and analysis of clinical trials and meta-analyses in the 1970s and 1980s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Antoine de Lavoisier’s role in designing a single-blind trial to assess whether ‘Animal Magnetism’ exists. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Zwarenstein M (2016).
‘Pragmatic’ and ‘Explanatory’ attitudes to randomized trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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2.0 Avoiding biased treatment comparisons

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2.2 The need to compare like-with-like in treatment comparisons

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2.3 Why avoiding differences between treatments allocated and treatments received is important

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2.4 The need to avoid differences in the way treatment outcomes are assessed

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2.6 Reducing biases in judging unanticipated possible treatment effects

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2.7 Dealing with biased reporting of the available evidence

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2.8 Avoiding biased selection from the available evidence

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4.2 Preparing and maintaining systematic reviews of all the relevant evidence

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Cómo evitar los sesgos en las comparaciones

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Diferenças entre as pessoas comparadas

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Différences entre les personnes comparées

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Precaução nas comparações com vícios

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Éviter des comparaisons biaisées

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الاختلافات بين الطريقة التي يجري بها تقيـيم المعالجات

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التعامل مع التقارير المتحيزة حول البيِّنات المتاحة

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التعرُّف على تأثيرات المعالجات غير المتحسَّبة

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الفروق بين الأشخاص الخاضعين للمقارنة

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الفوارق بين المعالجات المقصودة والمعالجات المتلقَّاة فعلياً

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المراجعات المنهجية لجميع البيِّنات ذات الصلة

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تجنُّب الانتقاء المتحيّز من البيِّنات المتوفرة

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تفادي المقارنات المتحيِّزة

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