Biases

Biases in tests of treatments are those influences and factors that can lead to conclusions about treatment effects that are systematically different from the truth.


JLL Essay
2.0 Avoiding biased treatment comparisons

So what are fair tests?

 

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Hippocrates (5th Century BCE)
Ancient Medicine. In: Littré MPE (1839). Oeuvres complètes d’Hippocrate, vol 1. Traduction nouvelle avec le texte grec en regard, collationé sur les manuscrits et toutes les éditions; accompagnée d’une introduction, de commentaries medicaux, de variants et de notes philologiques; suivie d’ une table générale des matières. Paris: J-B Bailliere, p 572.

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Bacon F (1626)
The New Atlantis. Republished in: Rawley W (1685). Sylva Sylvarum: or a natural history in ten centuries. Written by the Right Honorable Francis, Lord Verulam, Viscount Sr. Albans. Eleventh edition. London: Printed for B Griffin.

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Bacon F (1645)
Franc Baconis de Verulamio / Summi Angliae Cancellarii /Novum organum scientiarum. Lugd. Bat: apud Adrianum Wiingaerde, et Franciscum Moiardum. Aphorism XLVI (pages 45-46).

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Van Helmont JB (1648)
Ortus medicinæ: Id est Initia physicæ inaudita. Progressus medicinae novus, in morborum ultionem, ad vitam longam [The dawn of medicine: That is, the beginning of a new Physic. A new advance in medicine, a victory over disease, to (promote) a long life]. Amsterodami: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, pp 526-527.

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Starkey G (1657)
Natures explication and Helmont’s vindication…Or A short and sure way to a long and sound life. London: printed by E. Cotes for Thomas Alsop at the two Sugar-loaves over against St. Antholins Church at the lower end of Watling Street.

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Boyle R (1661)
In defense of Experimental Essays. In: Certain Physiological Essays, pp 4-5.

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Massey I (1723)
A short and plain account of inoculation. With some remarks on the main argument made use of to recommend that practice, by Mr. Maitland and others. To which is added, a letter to the learned James Jurin, M.D.R.S. Secr. Col. Reg. Med. Lond. Soc. London: W. Meadows.

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Jurin J (1724)
A letter to the learned Dr. Caleb Cotesworth, F. R. S. of the College of Physicians, London, and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital; containing a comparison between the danger of the natural small pox, and that given by inoculation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1722 - 1723), 32:213-227.

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Lind J (1753)
A treatise of the scurvy. In three parts. Containing an inquiry into the nature, causes and cure, of that disease. Together with a critical and chronological view of what has been published on the subject. Edinburgh: Printed by Sands, Murray and Cochran for A Kincaid and A Donaldson.

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Gregory J (1772)
Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. London: Strahan and Cadell.

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Mesmer FA (1781)
Précis historique des faits relatifs au magnétisme animal jusques en avril 1781. Par M. Mesmer, Docteur en Médecine de la Faculté de Vienne. Ouvrage traduit de l'Allemand [Historical account of facts relating to animal magnetism up to April 1781. By M. Mesmer, Doctor in Medicine of the Vienna Faculty. Work translated from German]. A Londres [false imprint, probably Paris.] pp. 111-114; 182.

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Haygarth J (1784)
An inquiry into how to prevent smallpox. Chester and London.

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Commission Royale. Bailly A (1784)
Rapport des commissaires chargés par le Roi, de l'examen du magnétisme animale [Report of the Comissioners required by the King to examine animal magnetism]. Imprimé par ordre du Roi. Paris: A Paris, de L'Imprimerie Royale.

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Withering W (1785)
An account of the foxglove and some of its medical uses: with practical remarks on dropsy and other diseases. London: J and J Robinson.

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Parry CH (1786)
Experiments relative to the medical effects of Turkey Rhubarb, and of the English Rhubarbs, No. I and No. II made on patients of the Pauper Charity. Letters and Papers of the Bath Society 11:431-453.

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Fowler T (1786)
Medical reports of the effects of arsenic in the cure of agues, remitting fevers and periodic headachs. London: J Johnson, pp 105-107.

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Sims RC (1791)
Letter VI. Letters and Papers of the Bath Society III: 486-487.

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Haygarth J (1793)
Sketch of a plan to exterminate the casual smallpox from Great Britain; and to introduce general inoculation. London: J Johnson

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Currie J (1797)
Medical reports on the effects of water, cold and warm, as a remedy in fever, and febrile diseases. Liverpool and London: M’Creery and Cadell.

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Haygarth J (1800)
Of the imagination, as a cause and as a cure of disorders of the body: exemplified by fictitious tractors, and epidemical convulsions. Bath: R. Crutwell.

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