Savović J, Jones HE, Altman DG, Harris RJ, Jüni P, Pildal J, Als-Nielsen B, Balk EM, Gluud C, Gluud LL, Ioannidis JPA, Schulz KF, Beynon R, Welton NJ, Wood L, Moher D, Deeks JJ, Sterne JAC (2012)

Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized controlled trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 157:429-438.
Meta-epidemiology applies multivariable analysis to large numbers of studies to identify associations. The example reported in 2012 by Jelena Savović and her colleagues examined the relationships between study design features and estimates of treatment effects.  The findings emphasized the importance of blinded outcome assessment to reduce observer/measurement bias.

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