Chan A-W, Hròbjartsson A, Haahr M, Gøtzsche PC, Altman DG (2004)

Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: Comparison of protocols to publications. JAMA 291:2457-2465.
By comparing trial protocols with trial reports, a Canadian physician, An-Wen Chan and his colleagues, demonstrated frequent, biased switching of primary outcomes based on whether differences in outcomes were statistically significant.       

Key passage(s)


Whole article


An-Wen Chan



The editors are grateful to:

JAMA for allowing the James Lind Library to link to this and other articles of historical relevance (email to Iain Chalmers from Annette Flanagin, 29 August 2014).