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Adams CE (2004).
William Halse Rivers (1864-1922).
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Adams CE (2009).
James Crichton Browne and controlled evaluation of drug treatment for mental illness.
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Agnew RAL (2008).
John Forbes FRS (1787-1861).
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Altman DG, Simera I (2015).
A history of the evolution of guidelines for reporting medical research: the long road to the EQUATOR Network.
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Armitage P (2002).
Randomisation and alternation: a note on Diehl et al.
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Armitage P (2009).
A statistical note on the analysis of the 1948 MRC streptomycin trial.
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Armitage P (2013).
The evolution of ways of deciding when clinical trials should stop recruiting.
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Bastian H (2004).
Down and almost out in Scotland: George Orwell, tuberculosis and getting streptomycin in 1948.
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Bastian H (2007).
Lucy Wills (1888-1964), the life and research of an adventurous independent woman.
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Birbeck E (2011).
The Royal Hospital Haslar: from Lind to the 21st century.
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Bird SM (2014).
The 1959 meeting in Vienna on controlled clinical trials – a methodological landmark.
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Booth CC† (2002).
John Haygarth FRS (1740-1827).
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Boren SA (2006).
Max Pinner (1891-1948).
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Boren SA, Diaz M, Neuhauser D (2006).
James Burns Amberson (1890-1979).
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Boylston AW (2008).
Zabdiel Boylston (1679/80-1766).
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Boylston AW (2008).
William Watson’s use of controlled clinical experiments in 1768.
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Boylston AW (2010).
Thomas Nettleton and the dawn of quantitative assessments of the effects of medical interventions.
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Boylston AW (2011).
Observation and experimentation in developing ‘the Suttonian Method’ of inoculation.
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Boylston AW (2012).
The origins of vaccination: no inoculation, no vaccination.
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Boylston AW (2012).
John Haygarth’s 18th century ‘Rules of Prevention’ for eradicating smallpox.
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Boylston AW (2012).
The origins of inoculation.
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Boylston AW, Williams AE (2008).
Zabdiel Boylston’s evaluation of inoculation against smallpox.
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Bracken MB (2008).
Why animal studies are often poor predictors of human reactions to exposure.
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Bryder L (2010).
The Medical Research Council and clinical trial methodologies before the 1940s: the failure to develop a ‘scientific’ approach.
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Bryder L (2014).
The Medical Research Council and treatments for tuberculosis before streptomycin.
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Bull JP (1951).
A study of the history and principles of clinical therapeutic trials. MD Thesis, University of Cambridge.
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Burch D (2009).
Astley Paston Cooper (1768–1841), anatomist, radical, and surgeon.
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Burton MJ (2015).
Astley Cooper’s dramatically effective treatment of deafness.
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Campbell MJ (2012).
Doing clinical trials large enough to achieve adequate reductions in uncertainties about treatment effects.
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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell (1904-1968).
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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell and the birth of randomized trials.
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Chalmers I (2006).
Archie Cochrane (1909-1988).
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Chalmers I (2010).
Why the 1948 MRC trial of streptomycin used treatment allocation based on random numbers.
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Chalmers I (2013).
UK Medical Research Council and multicentre clinical trials: from a damning report to international recognition.
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Chalmers I, Clarke M (2002).
J Guy Scadding and the move from alternation to randomization.
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Chalmers I, Dukan E, Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
The advent of fair treatment allocation schedules in clinical trials during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
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Chalmers I, Toth B (2009).
19th century controlled trials to test whether belladonna prevents scarlet fever.
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Chalmers J (2005).
Sir George Chalmers (c 1720-1791), portraitist of James Lind.
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Chalmers J, Chalmers I, Tröhler U (2017).
Helping physicians to keep abreast of the medical literature: Andrew Duncan and Medical and Philosophical Commentaries, 1773-1795.
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Clarke M (2004).
The 1944 patulin trial of the British Medical Research Council: an example of how concerted common purpose can get reliable answers to important questions very quickly.
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Clarke M (2015).
History of evidence synthesis to assess treatment effects: personal reflections on something that is very much alive.
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Cochrane AL, Blythe M (2004).
Sickness in Salonica.
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Cockerill A, Goble PJ (2012).
Thomas Graham Balfour, pioneering medical statistician and stern disciplinarian.
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Cook H (2010).
Testing the effects of Jesuit’s bark in the Chinese Emperor’s court.
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Cox DR (2009).
Randomization for concealment.
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Cox-Maksimov D (1997)
The Making of the Clinical Trial in Britain, 1910-1945: Expertise, the State and the Public.
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Craft A (2006).
James Stansfeld (1917-1998).
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Crofton J (2004).
The MRC randomized trial of streptomycin and its legacy: a view from the clinical front line.
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Crofton J (2005).
Marc Daniels (1907-1953), a pioneer in establishing standards for clinical trial methods and reporting.
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Crofton J (2006).
John Crofton (1912-2009).
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Crofton J† (2007).
Reginald Bignall (1913-2000).
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Davey Smith G (2006).
Capitalising on Mendelian randomization to assess the effects of treatments.
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Dean ME (2003).
‘An innocent deception’: placebo controls in the St Petersburg homeopathy trial, 1829-30.
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Dean ME (2009).
Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849-51.
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Dean ME (2014).
The mustard gas experiments done by the British Homoeopathic Society for the Ministry of Home Security, 1941-42.
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Dean ME (2015).
Selective suppression by the medical establishment of unwelcome research findings: The cholera treatment evaluation by the General Board of Health, London 1854.
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Diaz M, Neuhauser D (2004).
Lessons from using randomization to assess gold treatment for tuberculosis.
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Dickersin K, Chalmers F (2014).
Thomas C Chalmers (1917-1995): a pioneer of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews.
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Dickersin K, Chalmers I (2010).
Recognising, investigating and dealing with incomplete and biased reporting of clinical research: from Francis Bacon to the World Health Organisation.
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Doll R (2003).
Controlled trials testing two or more treatments simultaneously.
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Donaldson IML (2004).
Ambroise Paré’s accounts of new methods for treating gunshot wounds and burns.
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Donaldson IML (2005).
Mesmer’s 1780 proposal for a controlled trial to test his method of treatment using ‘Animal Magnetism’.
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Donaldson IML (2013).
Francis Bacon’s comments on the power of negative observations in his Novum Organum, first published in 1620.
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Donaldson IML (2016).
Petrarch’s letter to Boccaccio ‘on the proud and presumptuous behaviour of physicians’.
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Donaldson IML (2016).
George Starkey’s 1658 challenge to Galenists to compare their treatment results with his.
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Donaldson IML (2016).
Reflections on translating passages on ‘empirical’ and ‘dogmatic’ medicine in Celsus’s De medicina.
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Donaldson IML (2016).
van Helmont’s proposal for a randomised comparison of treating fevers with or without bloodletting and purging.
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Donaldson IML (2016).
Antoine de Lavoisier’s role in designing a single-blind trial to assess whether ‘Animal Magnetism’ exists.
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Doyle D (2011).
Thomas MacLagan’s 1876 demonstration of the dramatic effects of salicin in rheumatic fever.
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Doyle D (2011).
Thomas John MacLagan (1838-1903).
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Edwards M (2010).
Dora Colebrook and the evaluation of light therapy.
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Edwards MV (2004)
Control and the therapeutic trial 1918 – 1948.
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Elwood P (2004).
The first randomized trial of aspirin for heart attack and the advent of systematic overviews of trials.
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Erill S (2008).
Louis Lasagna (1923-2003).
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Farewell V, Johnson A (2010).
Hilda Woods (1892-1971).
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Farewell V, Johnson A (2010).
William Thomas Russell (1888-1953).
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Farewell V, Johnson A (2010).
The first British textbook of medical statistics.
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Farewell V, Johnson A (2011).
The origins of Austin Bradford Hill’s classic textbook of medical statistics.
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Ferroni E, Jefferson T, Gachelin G (2011).
Angelo Celli and research on the prevention of malaria in Italy a century ago.
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Fox DM (2011).
Systematic reviews and health policy: the influence of a project on perinatal care since 1988.
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Furberg CD (2009).
How should one analyse and interpret clinical trials in which patients don’t take the treatments assigned to them?
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Gachelin G (2013).
The interaction of scientific evidence and politics in debates about preventing malaria in 1925.
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Gachelin G, Garner P, Ferroni E, Tröhler U, Chalmers I (2016).
Evaluating Cinchona bark and quinine for treating and preventing malaria.
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Gartlehner G, Stepper K (2011).
Julius Wagner-Jauregg: pyrotherapy, Simultanmethode, and ‘racial hygiene’.
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Gluud C (2008).
Povl Heiberg (1868-1963).
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Gluud C (2010).
Danish contributions to the evaluation of serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s.
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Gluud C, Hilden J (2008).
Povl Heiberg’s 1897 methodological study on the statistical method as an aid in therapeutic trials.
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Gong Y, Gluud C (2003).
Commentary on the Ben Cao Tu Jing (11th century). Atlas of Materia Medica. Song Dynasty (960-1279).
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Gøtzsche PC (2004).
Niels Finsen’s treatment for lupus vulgaris.
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Grimes DA (2007).
Discovering the need for randomized controlled trials in obstetrics: a personal odyssey.
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Guyatt GH, Oxman AD (2009).
Medicine’s methodological debt to the social sciences.
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Hampton J (2004).
An early parallel group trial in cardiology.
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Hampton J (2015).
Therapeutic fashion and publication bias: the case of anti-arrhythmic drugs in heart attack.
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Haynes RB (2016).
Improving reports of research by more informative abstracts: a personal reflection
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Hemminki E (2005).
Commentary on an early placebo controlled trial in Finland.
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Hemminki E (2010).
Martti Simeon Kalke (1898-1976).
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Houston C (2004).
Ferguson’s BCG research – Canada’s first randomized clinical trial?
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Howick J (2016).
Aulus Cornelius Celsus and ‘empirical’ and ‘dogmatic’ medicine
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Hróbjartsson A, Gøtzsche PC, Gluud C (1988).
The controlled clinical trial turns 100 years: Fibiger’s trial of serum treatment of diphtheria.
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Huth EJ (2005).
Quantitative evidence for judgments on the efficacy of inoculation for the prevention of smallpox: England and New England in the 1700s.
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Huth EJ (2006).
Benjamin Franklin’s (1706-1790), place in the history of medicine.
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Huth EJ (2006).
Transatlantic ideas on the philosophy of therapeutics in the middle of the 19th century.
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Huth EJ (2006).
Elisha Bartlett (1804–1855), an American disciple of Jules Gavarret.
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Huth EJ (2006).
Jules Gavarret’s Principes Généraux de Statistique Médicale: a pioneering text on the statistical analysis of the results of treatments.
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Huth EJ (2008).
The move toward setting scientific standards for the content of medical review articles.
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Hytten F (2009).
Isabella Leitch’s contributions to the development of systematic reviews of research evidence.
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Jefferson T (2006).
Why the MRC randomized trials of whooping cough (pertussis) vaccines remain important more than half a century after they were done.
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Jenicek M (2006).
Méta-analyse en médecine: the first book on systematic reviews in medicine.
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Jick H (2008).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs: a brief personal history.
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JLL Bulletin Editors (2010).
Commentary on Rapport général sur les prix décernés en 1862. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale de Médecine XXVI, Paris: Ballière, p xxii-xxxv.
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Joosse NP, Pormann PE (2008).
Archery, mathematics, and conceptualising inaccuracies in medicine in 13th century Iraq and Syria.
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Kaptchuk TJ (2004).
Early use of blind assessment in a homeopathic scientific experiment.
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Kaptchuk TJ (2011).
A brief history of the evolution of methods to control observer biases in tests of treatments.
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Kerr CE, Milne I, Kaptchuk TJ (2007).
William Cullen and a missing mind-body link in the early history of placebos.
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Klar N, Donner A (2004).
The impact of E.F. Lindquist’s text “Statistical Analysis in Educational Research” on cluster randomisation.
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Klingberg MA (2010).
An epidemiologist’s journey from typhus to thalidomide, and from the Soviet Union to Seveso.
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La Rochelle P, Julien A-S (2013).
How dramatic were the effects of handwashing on maternal mortality observed by Ignaz Semmelweis?
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Lechuga RI, Castro AC (2016).
Dramatic effects of control measures on deaths from yellow fever in Havana, Cuba, in the early 1900’s.
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Lee MR (2004).
The miracle of St. Alfege’s: discovering a treatment for myaesthenia gravis.
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Lee MR (2005).
William Withering (1741-1799), a biographical sketch of a Birmingham Lunatic.
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Loudon I (2002).
The use of historical controls and concurrent controls to assess the effects of sulphonamides, 1936-1945.
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Loudon I (2002).
An early Medical Research Council controlled trial of vitamins for preventing infection.
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Loudon I (2013).
Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis’ studies of death in childbirth.
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Louis-Courvoisier M (2007).
An 18th century controlled trial prompted by a potential shortage of hospital beds.
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Löwy I (2010).
Martin Arrowsmith’s clinical trial: scientific precision and heroic medicine.
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Maehle A-H (2011).
Four early clinical studies to assess the effects of Peruvian bark.
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Mann H, Djulbegovic B (2012).
Comparator bias: why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties.
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Marks HM (1987)
Ideas as reforms: Therapeutic Experiments and Medical Practice, 1900-1980.
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Marks HM† (2006).
The Kendrick-Eldering-(Frost) pertussis vaccine field trial.
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Marks HM† (2007).
James Angus Doull and the well-controlled common cold.
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Marušić A, Fatović-Ferenčić S (2012).
Adoption of the double dummy trial design to reduce observer bias in testing treatments.
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McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research.
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Middleton J (2008).
Pellagra and the blues song ‘Cornbread, meat and black molasses’.
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Milne I (2012).
Who was James Lind, and what exactly did he achieve?
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Milne I, Chalmers I (2014).
Alexander Lesassier Hamilton’s 1816 report of a controlled trial of bloodletting.
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Mirza RD, Punja S, Vohra S, Guyatt G (2017).
The history and development of N of 1 trials.
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Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design.
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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter: learning from natural experiments, ‘placebos’, and the state of mind of a patient in the 18th century.
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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter (1728-1793).
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Morabia A (2004).
Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis and the evaluation of bloodletting.
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Morabia A (2006).
Joseph Goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra.
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Morabia A (2007).
Claude Bernard, statistics, and comparative trials.
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Morabia A (2010).
Edward Jenner’s 1798 report of challenge experiments demonstrating the protective effects of cowpox against smallpox.
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Nasser M, Tibi A (2006).
Ibn Hindu and the science of medicine.
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Nasser M, Tibi A, Savage-Smith E (2007).
Ibn Sina’s Canon of Medicine: 11th century rules for assessing the effects of drugs.
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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2006).
Jesse GM Bullowa (1879-1943).
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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2007).
Russell LaFayette Cecil (1881-1965).
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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2007).
Use of rotation to allocate patients to homeopathic or regular medical services in Cook County Hospital, Chicago, 1882.
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Neuhauser D, Diaz M, Chalmers I (2007).
A puzzling omission in a great medical textbook edited by a pioneer of controlled trials.
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Nunn JF (2008).
A treatment that has stood the test of time for over three and a half millennia.
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O'Rourke K (2006).
A historical perspective on meta-analysis: dealing quantitatively with varying study results.
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Oliver S (2014).
Advantages of concurrent preparation and reporting of systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence.
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Olsen SF (2002).
The People’s League of Health trial.
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Opinel A, Gachelin G (2010).
French 19th century contributions to the development of treatments for diphtheria.
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Passmore R† (2001).
William Cullen (1710-1790).
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Pazzini A (1958).
Angelo Celli (1857-1914).
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Peters L (2006).
James Lind’s descendants.
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Peters L, Hepner J (2009).
George Chalmers’ portrait of James Lind, 1783-2008: a reconstruction.
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Peto J (2016).
Reflections on the importance of strict adherence to treatment protocols: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children in the 1970s in the US and the UK.
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Peto R (2016).
Reflections on the design and analysis of clinical trials and meta-analyses in the 1970s and 1980s.
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Petrosino A (2004).
Charles Frederick [Fred] Mosteller (1916-2006).
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Podolsky SH (2008).
Jesse Bullowa, specific treatment for pneumonia, and the development of the controlled clinical trial.
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Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
Park’s story and Winters’ tale: alternate allocation clinical trials in turn of the Century America.
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Pollock JI (2003).
A controlled trial using a factorial design reported in 1946.
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Pollock JI (2003).
Clifford Wilson (1906-1997) and Martin Pollock (1914-1999).
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Pollock JI (2005).
Two controlled trials of supplementary feeding of British school children in the 1920s.
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Pormann PE (2013).
Qualifying and quantifying medical uncertainty in 10th century Baghdad: Abu Bakr al-Razi.
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Ramanna M (2014).
Nasarwanji Hormusji Choksy (1861-1939), a pioneer of controlled clinical trials.
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Reid CM (2008).
Donald Darnley Reid (1914-1977).
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Rennie D, Chalmers I (2009).
Exposing the dangers to patients of medical reviews and textbooks that ignore scientific principles.
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Rodeck CH (2004).
Geoffrey William Theobald (1896–1977).
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Rolls R (2003).
Caleb Hillier Parry (1755-1822).
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Sackett DL† (2008).
A 1955 clinical trial report that changed my career.
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Sackett DL† (2015).
Why did I become a clinician-trialist?
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Scadding JG (2002).
Reflections on my studies of the effects of sulphonamide drugs in bacillary dysentery in Egypt, 1943-1944.
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Scadding JW (2017).
John Guyett Scadding’s scepticism and pragmatism in addressing treatment uncertainties in clinical practice.
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Schlesselman JJ (2015).
Jerome Cornfield’s Bayesian approach to assessing interim results in clinical trials.
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Senn SJ (2003).
Cushny and Peebles and optical isomers, 1905.
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Shannon H (2008).
A statistical note on Karl Pearson’s 1904 meta-analysis.
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Sidebottom E (2012).
Roger Bacon and the beginnings of experimental science in Britain.
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Silverman WA† (2003).
Personal reflections on lessons learned from randomized trials involving newborn infants, 1951 to 1967.
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Silverman WA†, Chalmers I (2002).
Casting and drawing lots: a time-honoured way of dealing with uncertainty and for ensuring fairness.
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Sinclair L (2007).
Recognising, treating and understanding pernicious anaemia.
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Slater SD (2010).
The discovery of thyroid replacement therapy.
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Solis C (2011).
Bartolomé Hidalgo de Agüero’s 16th century, evidence-based challenge to the orthodox management of wounds.
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Spain P, Kadan-Lottick N (2010).
Observations of unprecedented remissions following novel treatment for acute leukemia in children in 1948.
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Spanager L (2005).
Jansen’s 1910 use of a single blind experiment to assess the effects of radioactive water on rheumatic diseases.
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Spanager L (2010).
Hans Ditlev Jansen (1875–1933).
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Stjernswärd J (2009)
Meta-analysis as a manifestation of ‘bondförnuft’ (‘peasant sense’).
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Stjernswärd J (2013)
Personal reflections on contributions to pain relief, palliative care and global cancer control
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Stolberg M (2006).
Inventing the randomized double-blind trial: The Nürnberg salt test of 1835.
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Stoll S (2004).
Paul Martini’s Methodology of therapeutic investigation.
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Stoll S (2010).
Paul Franz Xavier Martini (1889-1964).
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Straus S, Eisinga A, Sackett D† (2015).
What drove the Evidence Cart? Bringing the library to the bedside.
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Stylianou C, Kelnar C (2008).
The introduction of successful treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin.
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Sugiyama Y, Seita A (2013).
Kanehiro Takaki and the control of beriberi in the Japanese Navy.
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Sutton G (2004).
James Lind aboard Salisbury.
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Tansey EM (2006).
Philip Montagu D’Arcy Hart (1900-2006).
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Thacker SB (2009).
How I came to write papers for clinicians in the late 1980s about improving the quality of reviews.
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Tibi S (2005).
Al-Razi and Islamic medicine in the 9th Century.
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Toth B (1998)
Clinical trials in British medicine 1858 – 1948, with special reference to the development of the randomised controlled trial.
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Toth B (2015).
Why the MRC Therapeutic Trials Committee didn’t introduce controlled clinical trials.
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Treasure T (2016).
Documenting the dramatic effects of operative treatment of mitral stenosis.
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Tröhler U (1978)
Quantification in British Medicine and Surgery 1750-1830, with special Reference to its Introduction into Therapeutics.
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Tröhler U (2003).
John Clark 1780 & 1792: learning from properly kept records.
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Tröhler U (2003).
John Clark (1744-1805).
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Tröhler U (2003).
Withering’s 1785 appeal for caution when reporting on a new medicine.
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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and scurvy: 1747 to 1795.
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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and the evaluation of clinical practice.
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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson 1782: responsibility in surgical innovation.
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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson (1747-1823).
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Tröhler U (2003).
Adolf Bingel (1879-1953).
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Tröhler U (2003).
MacLean 1818: comparing like with like and recognising ethical double standards in therapeutic experimentation.
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Tröhler U (2003).
Charles MacLean (c.1766-1824).
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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind at Haslar Hospital 1758-1774: a methodological theorist.
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Tröhler U (2007).
An early 18th century proposal for improving medicine by tabulating and analysing practice.
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Tröhler U (2010).
Towards endocrinology: Theodor Kocher’s 1883 account of the unexpected effects of total ablation of the thyroid.
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Tröhler U (2010).
The introduction of numerical methods to assess the effects of medical interventions during the 18th century: a brief history.
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Tröhler U (2010).
Adolf Bingel’s blinded, controlled comparison of different anti-diphtheritic sera in 1918.
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Tröhler U (2010).
Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917).
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Tröhler U (2010).
Johann Friedrich de Quervain (1868-1940).
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Tröhler U (2013).
William Cheselden’s 1740 presentation of data on age-specific mortality after lithotomy.
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Tröhler U (2014).
Statistics and the British controversy about the effects of Joseph Lister’s system of antisepsis for surgery, 1867-1890.
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Tsiompanou E, Marketos SG† (2012).
Hippocrates: timeless still.
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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
The contribution of William Fletcher’s 1907 report to finding a cause and cure for beriberi.
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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Thalidomide: an unanticipated adverse effect.
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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Aspirin: an unanticipated beneficial effect.
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Vandenbroucke JP (2012).
Adolphe Vorderman’s 1897 study on beriberi: an example of scrupulous efforts to avoid bias.
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Vessey MP (2006).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs.
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Volmink J (2005).
The willow as a Hottentot (Khoikhoi) remedy for rheumatic fever.
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Wager E (2015).
Good Publication Practice 3: reflections on becoming a guideline grandmother.
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Weingarten S (2003).
Food in Daniel 1:1-16: the first controlled experiment?
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Wessely S (2009).
Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: the need to test untested theories.
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Wickenden JVS (2011).
The strange disappearances of James Lind.
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Williams KJ (2005)
British Pharmaceutical Industry, Synthetic Drug Manufacture and the Clinical Testing of Novel Drugs, 1895-1939.
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Williams KJ (2009).
The introduction of ‘chemotherapy’ using arsphenamine – the first magic bullet.
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Zwarenstein M (2016).
‘Pragmatic’ and ‘Explanatory’ attitudes to randomized trials.
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