Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG (1995)

Empirical evidence of bias: dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 273:408-412.

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The James Lind Library is grateful to:

JAMA for allowing the James Lind Library to link to this and other articles of historical relevance (email to Iain Chalmers from Annette Flanagin, 29 August 2014).