Allocation bias

Allocation bias results when treatment comparisons fail to ensure that, apart from the treatments being compared, ‘like will be compared with like’. See also N-of-1 crossover, Crossover tests, Cluster allocation and Factorial design.


JLL Essay
2.2 The need to compare like-with-like in treatment comparisons

Comparing like with like

 

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Van Helmont JB (1648)
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Starkey G (1657)
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Mesmer FA (1781)
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Cook County Board of Commissioners (1882)
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Priestley J (1895)
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Brown EH (1896)
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Winters JE (1896)
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Langton J (1899)
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Celli A (1900)
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Celli A (1900)
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Maitland CB (1900)
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Polverini G (1903)
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Waters EE (1903)
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Fehling H (1903)
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West WG (1905)
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Haffkine WM, West WG (1905)
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Haffkine WM (1905)
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Cousin M (1905)
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Cushny AR, Peebles AR (1905)
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Netter A (1906)
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Drake DJ (1907)
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Fletcher W (1907)
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Gewin J (1908)
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Choksy NH (1908)
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Freeman J (1910)
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Döderlein D (1910)
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Advisory Committee on Plague Investigations in India (1912)
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Park WH (1912)
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Freeman RG (1912)
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Hewlett AW (1913)
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Rosenow EC, Hektoen L (1913)
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Wright AE (1914)
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Carver AE (1914)
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Baer JL (1915)
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Leake JP (1917)
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Wiltshire HW (1918)
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Bingel A (1918)
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Kyes P (1918)
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Hinton WA, Kane ES (1919)
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Lees D (1919)
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Gray AW (1920)
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Kopeloff N, Kirby GH (1923)
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McCall WA (1923)
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Park WH (1925)
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Fletcher W (1925)
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Moir JC (1925)
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Oliver WW, Stoller EA (1925)
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Medical Research Council (1925)
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Mauel W (1926)
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Wagner-Jauregg J (1926)
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Sinton JA (1926)
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Sinton JA (1926)
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Gordon E (1927)
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Symmers D, Lewis KM (1927)
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Harries (1927)
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Sinton JA (1927)
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Ross WC, Bagchi KN , Roy BC (1928)
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McCann WS (1928)
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Bullowa JGM (1928)
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Park WH, Bullowa JGM, Rosenbluth NM (1928)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with refined specific antibacterial serum. JAMA 91:1503-1508.

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Cecil RL, Sutliff WD (1928)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with concentrated anti-pneumococcus serum. JAMA 91:2036-2040.

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Ferry NS, Gordon EJ, Munro FW, Steele AH, Fisher LW (1928)
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Pearce RM (1929)
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Freeman J (1929)
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Joe A, Swyer R (1929)
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Heald CB (1929)
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Bullowa JGM (1929)
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Colebrook D (1929)
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Sinton JA, Bird W (1929)
Studies in Malaria, with special reference to treatment. Part XI: The Cinchona alkaloids in the treatment of benign tertian malaria. Indian Journal of Medical Research 16: 725-746.

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Benson WT (1930)
The treatment of erysipelas with vaccines. Lancet 2:1286-289.

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Wyckoff J, DeGraaf AC, Parent S (1930)
Influence of salicylates on the heart in rheumatic fever. American Heart Journal 5:568-573.

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Physicians to the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (1930)
A report on lobar pneumonia: treatment by concentrated antiserum. Lancet 2:1390-1394.

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Iversen P (1930)
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Leighton G, McKinlay PL (1930)
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Wyckoff J, Du Bois EF, Woodruff IO (1930)
The therapeutic value of digitalis in pneumonia. JAMA 95:1243-1249.

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Kauders O (1930)
Ueber Nachbehandlung nach Malariatherapie [On the management of patients after malaria therapy]. Deutsche Medizinishe Wochenshcrift 61:400-401.

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Cecil RL, Plummer N (1930)
Pneumococcus type I pneumonia - a study of eleven hundred and sixty-one cases, with especial reference to specific therapy. JAMA 95:1547-1553.

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Finland M (1930)
The serum treatment of lobar pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine 202:1244-1247.

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Koenigsberger E (1931)
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Davis WE (1931)
The incidence of untoward symptoms following the intravenous injection of sodium tetraiodophenolphthalein in cholecystography. New England Journal of Medicine 205:534-6.

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Sutliff WD, Finland M (1931)
Type I lobar pneumonia treated with concentrated pneumococcic antibody (Felton). The clinical course. JAMA 96:1465-1469.

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Manson-Bahr P (1931)
Modern methods of treatment of intestinal amœbiasis. Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 24:1538–1548.

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Swyer R (1931)
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Naidu BPB, Mackie FP (1931)
The serum therapy of plague. Lancet 2:893-897.

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Roos H (1931)
Behandling av kruppös pneumoni med kininjektioner [Treatment of acute pneumonia with quinine injections]. Finska Läkaresällskapets Handlingar 73:778-789.

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Wagner-Jauregg J (1931)
Ueber die Infektionsbehandlung der progressiven Paralyse [On infection treatment of progressive paralysis]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 78:4-7.

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Green HN, Pindar D, Davis G, Mellanby E (1931)
Diet as a prophylactic agent against puerperal sepsis. BMJ 2:595-598.

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Doull JA, Hardy M, Clark JH, Herman NB (1931)
The effect of irradiation with ultra-violet light on the frequency of attacks of upper respiratory disease (common colds). American Journal of Hygiene 13:460-77.

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Amberson JB, McMahon BT, Pinner M (1931)
A clinical trial of sanocrysin in pulmonary tuberculosis. American Review of Tuberculosis 24:401-435.

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Friend GE (1931)
Amidopyrin in measles. BMJ 1:33.

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King D (1931)
Prevention of post-operative pulmonary complications. Report and Notices of Meetings. The New England Journal of Medicine 205:1320.

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Schauffler GC (1932)
Effect of knee-chest position and postural exercises on postpartum retroversion. JAMA 99:726-8.

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Sanders JP, Dawson, WT (1932)
Efficacy of quinidine in malaria. JAMA 99:1773-7.

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Cecil RL, Plummer N (1932)
Pneumococcus Type II pneumonia: a clinical and bacteriologic study of one thousand cases, with especial reference to serum therapy. JAMA 98:779-86.

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Blatt ML, Shaw NG (1932)
Bacillary dysentery in children: a report of the cases in the Cook County Children's Hospital, Chicago, for 1932. Presented a Regular Meeting of the Chicago Pediatric Society, 20 Dec 1932, reported in Archives of Pediatrics.

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Aldred-Brown GRP, Munro JMH (1932)
Autogenous urinary proteose in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 2:1211-1214.

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Armstrong RR, Johnson RS (1932)
Treatment of lobar pneumonia by anti-pneumococcal serum. BMJ 2:662-65.

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Martini P (1932)
Methodenlehre der Therapeutischen Untersuchung [Methodological principles for therapeutic investigations]. Berlin: Springer.

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Riding D, Corkhill NL (1932)
Prophylactic vaccination in epidemic meningococcal meningitis. Journal of Hygiene 32:258-267.

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Ellison JB (1932)
Intensive vitamin therapy in measles. BMJ 2:708-711.

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Kessel JF, Rose EJ (1933)
Bacteriophage Therapy in Bacillary Dysentery of the Flexner Type*†. Annals of Internal Medicine 6:1193-1199.

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Borovsky MP, Steigmann F (1933)
Amidopyrine in the treatment of measles. JAMA 100:1859-61.

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King D (1933)
Postoperative pulmonary complications. II. Carbon dioxide as a preventive in controlled series. JAMA 100: 21-6.

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Hottinger A, Toepfer D (1933)
Über den Wert der Serumtherapie bei Diphtherie, insbesondere bei der malignen, toxischen form [On the value of serum therapy of diphtheria, particularly in its malignant, toxic form]. Zeitschrifte für Kinderheilkunde 54:505-529.

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Macnamara J (1933)
Serum therapy in poliomyelitis. BMJ 1:526-8.

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Sutliff WD, Finland M, Hunnicutt TN (1933)
Direct comparison between specific and nonspecific serum therapy for type 1 lobar pneumonia. Archives of Internal Medicine 51:435-446.

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Diehl HS (1933)
Medicinal treatment of the common cold. JAMA 101:2042-2049.

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Bullowa JGM (1934)
Therapeutic pneumococcus Type VIIII (Cooper) serum. JAMA 102: 1560-1561.

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Field JW (1934)
The substitution of atebrin for quinine in treated “ambulatory” cases of malaria on rubber estates. In: Neave Kingsbury A. Annual Report of the Institute for Medical Research, Federated Malay States, p 16-24.

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Medical Research Council Therapeutic Trials Committee (1934)
The serum treatment of lobar pneumonia. BMJ 1:241-245.

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Greenwood M (1934)
Epidemics and crowd-diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Sutherland R (1934)
Vitamins A and D: their relation to growth and resistance to disease. BMJ 1:791–795.

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Bray GW, Witts LJ (1934)
Pseudo-ephedrine in asthma. Lancet 1:788-90.

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Wetherbee W, Foley JA, Resnik J (1935)
Diathermy in pneumonia – preliminary report. New England Journal of Medicine 213:796-8.

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McSweeny CJ (1935)
Clinical trials with a new antityphoid serum. Lancet 1:1095-1098.

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Robin L, Van-Huan T (1935)
Essais comparés de prophylaxie médicamenteuse en région hyperendémique par la praequine et la quinine ou la quinacrine [Comparative trials of anti-malarial drug prophylaxis in a hyperendemic area with præquine, associated with quinine or quinacrine]. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie exotique 28:650-658.

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Kalke M (1935)
Hikoilukuurin vaikutuksesta influensan kulkuun ja sen leviämisestä eri paikkakunnilta saapuneiden asevelvollisten keskuuessa VJP:ssä v.1933. [The effect of a sweating cure on the course of influenza and its transmission among conscripts from different localities joining the Vuoksi Jaeger Battalion in 1933.] Sotilaslääketieteellinen Aikakauslehti, s28-34.

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Hicks EP, Diwan Chand S (1935)
The relative clinical efficacy of totaquina and quinine. In: Records of the Malaria Survey of India 5:39-50.

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Begg N, Coveney MF (1936)
Whooping-cough: value of a specific vaccine in treatment. Lancet 1:82-83.

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Jolliffe N, Colbert CN (1936)
The etiology of polyneuritis in the alcohol addict. JAMA 107:642-7.

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Hoyne AL (1936)
Intravenous treatment of meningococcic meningitis with Meningococcus antitoxin. JAMA 107:478-81.

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Corrigan JG, Strauss MB (1936)
The prevention of hypochromic anaemia in pregnancy. JAMA 106:1088-1090.

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Moir JC (1936)
Clinical experiences with the new alkaloid, ergometrine. BMJ 2:799-801.

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Rosenthal DB (1936)
The incidence of pleural effusion in artificial pneumothorax. BMJ 1:95-99.

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Pasricha CL, de Monte AJH, O’Flynn EG (1936)
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Davey Smith G (2006).
Capitalising on Mendelian randomization to assess the effects of treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jefferson T (2006).
Why the MRC randomized trials of whooping cough (pertussis) vaccines remain important more than half a century after they were done. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2006).
The Kendrick-Eldering-(Frost) pertussis vaccine field trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2006).
Joseph Goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stolberg M (2006).
Inventing the randomized double-blind trial: The Nürnberg salt test of 1835. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bastian H (2007).
Lucy Wills (1888-1964), the life and research of an adventurous independent woman. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2007).
James Angus Doull and the well-controlled common cold. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2007).
Use of rotation to allocate patients to homeopathic or regular medical services in Cook County Hospital, Chicago, 1882. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M, Chalmers I (2007).
A puzzling omission in a great medical textbook edited by a pioneer of controlled trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH (2008).
Jesse Bullowa, specific treatment for pneumonia, and the development of the controlled clinical trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Reid CM (2008).
Donald Darnley Reid (1914-1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2008).
A 1955 clinical trial report that changed my career. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Toth B (2009).
19th century controlled trials to test whether belladonna prevents scarlet fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cox DR (2009).
Randomization for concealment. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Furberg CD (2009).
How should one analyse and interpret clinical trials in which patients don’t take the treatments assigned to them? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wessely S (2009).
Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: the need to test untested theories. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell (1904-1968). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell and the birth of randomized trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Why the 1948 MRC trial of streptomycin used treatment allocation based on random numbers. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Edwards M (2010).
Dora Colebrook and the evaluation of light therapy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gluud C (2010).
Danish contributions to the evaluation of serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Löwy I (2010).
Martin Arrowsmith’s clinical trial: scientific precision and heroic medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Adolf Bingel’s blinded, controlled comparison of different anti-diphtheritic sera in 1918. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Dukan E, Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
The advent of fair treatment allocation schedules in clinical trials during the 19th and early 20th centuries. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2011).
The origins of Austin Bradford Hill’s classic textbook of medical statistics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ferroni E, Jefferson T, Gachelin G (2011).
Angelo Celli and research on the prevention of malaria in Italy a century ago. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gartlehner G, Stepper K (2011).
Julius Wagner-Jauregg: pyrotherapy, Simultanmethode, and ‘racial hygiene’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
Park’s story and Winters’ tale: alternate allocation clinical trials in turn of the Century America. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2013).
UK Medical Research Council and multicentre clinical trials: from a damning report to international recognition. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2013).
Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis’ studies of death in childbirth. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ramanna M (2014).
Nasarwanji Hormusji Choksy (1861-1939), a pioneer of controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2014).
The mustard gas experiments done by the British Homoeopathic Society for the Ministry of Home Security, 1941-42. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Milne I, Chalmers I (2014).
Alexander Lesassier Hamilton’s 1816 report of a controlled trial of bloodletting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dickersin K, Chalmers F (2014).
Thomas C Chalmers (1917-1995): a pioneer of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (2015).
Why the MRC Therapeutic Trials Committee didn’t introduce controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gachelin G, Garner P, Ferroni E, Tröhler U, Chalmers I (2016).
Evaluating Cinchona bark and quinine for treating and preventing malaria. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Zwarenstein M (2016).
‘Pragmatic’ and ‘Explanatory’ attitudes to randomized trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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2.2 The need to compare like-with-like in treatment comparisons

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Diferenças entre as pessoas comparadas

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Différences entre les personnes comparées

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الفروق بين الأشخاص الخاضعين للمقارنة

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