Treatment comparisons are essential

Treatment comparisons are required to take account of the natural course of health problems, placebo effects, and to go beyond impressions about treatment effects. But treatment comparisons need to be fair to avoid untrustworthy and sometimes dangerously incorrect conclusions about the effects of treatments.


JLL Essay
1.2 Why treatment comparisons are essential

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Show


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Quantification in British Medicine and Surgery 1750-1830, with special Reference to its Introduction into Therapeutics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Passmore R† (2001).
William Cullen (1710-1790). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
The use of historical controls and concurrent controls to assess the effects of sulphonamides, 1936-1945. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2003).
‘An innocent deception’: placebo controls in the St Petersburg homeopathy trial, 1829-30. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gong Y, Gluud C (2003).
Commentary on the Ben Cao Tu Jing (11th century). Atlas of Materia Medica. Song Dynasty (960-1279). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
John Clark 1780 & 1792: learning from properly kept records. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
John Clark (1744-1805). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Withering’s 1785 appeal for caution when reporting on a new medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and scurvy: 1747 to 1795. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and the evaluation of clinical practice. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson 1782: responsibility in surgical innovation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson (1747-1823). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
MacLean 1818: comparing like with like and recognising ethical double standards in therapeutic experimentation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind at Haslar Hospital 1758-1774: a methodological theorist. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Thalidomide: an unanticipated adverse effect. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Weingarten S (2003).
Food in Daniel 1:1-16: the first controlled experiment? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gøtzsche PC (2004).
Niels Finsen’s treatment for lupus vulgaris. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Lee MR (2004).
The miracle of St. Alfege’s: discovering a treatment for myaesthenia gravis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2004).
Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis and the evaluation of bloodletting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sutton G (2004).
James Lind aboard Salisbury. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tibi S (2005).
Al-Razi and Islamic medicine in the 9th Century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Volmink J (2005).
The willow as a Hottentot (Khoikhoi) remedy for rheumatic fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Nasser M, Tibi A (2006).
Ibn Hindu and the science of medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Kerr CE, Milne I, Kaptchuk TJ (2007).
William Cullen and a missing mind-body link in the early history of placebos. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Louis-Courvoisier M (2007).
An 18th century controlled trial prompted by a potential shortage of hospital beds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Nasser M, Tibi A, Savage-Smith E (2007).
Ibn Sina’s Canon of Medicine: 11th century rules for assessing the effects of drugs. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sinclair L (2007).
Recognising, treating and understanding pernicious anaemia. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2007).
An early 18th century proposal for improving medicine by tabulating and analysing practice. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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John Forbes FRS (1787-1861). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jick H (2008).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs: a brief personal history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Nunn JF (2008).
A treatment that has stood the test of time for over three and a half millennia. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stylianou C, Kelnar C (2008).
The introduction of successful treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Adams CE (2009).
James Crichton Browne and controlled evaluation of drug treatment for mental illness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Burch D (2009).
Astley Paston Cooper (1768–1841), anatomist, radical, and surgeon. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2009).
Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849-51. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter: learning from natural experiments, ‘placebos’, and the state of mind of a patient in the 18th century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Williams KJ (2009).
The introduction of ‘chemotherapy’ using arsphenamine – the first magic bullet. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cook H (2010).
Testing the effects of Jesuit’s bark in the Chinese Emperor’s court. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gluud C (2010).
Danish contributions to the evaluation of serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2010).
Edward Jenner’s 1798 report of challenge experiments demonstrating the protective effects of cowpox against smallpox. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Opinel A, Gachelin G (2010).
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Slater SD (2010).
The discovery of thyroid replacement therapy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Spain P, Kadan-Lottick N (2010).
Observations of unprecedented remissions following novel treatment for acute leukemia in children in 1948. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Towards endocrinology: Theodor Kocher’s 1883 account of the unexpected effects of total ablation of the thyroid. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doyle D (2011).
Thomas MacLagan’s 1876 demonstration of the dramatic effects of salicin in rheumatic fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Maehle A-H (2011).
Four early clinical studies to assess the effects of Peruvian bark. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Solis C (2011).
Bartolomé Hidalgo de Agüero’s 16th century, evidence-based challenge to the orthodox management of wounds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Milne I (2012).
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Vandenbroucke JP (2012).
Adolphe Vorderman’s 1897 study on beriberi: an example of scrupulous efforts to avoid bias. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gachelin G (2013).
The interaction of scientific evidence and politics in debates about preventing malaria in 1925. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sugiyama Y, Seita A (2013).
Kanehiro Takaki and the control of beriberi in the Japanese Navy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2013).
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Tröhler U (2014).
Statistics and the British controversy about the effects of Joseph Lister’s system of antisepsis for surgery, 1867-1890. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (2015).
Why the MRC Therapeutic Trials Committee didn’t introduce controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Burton MJ (2015).
Astley Cooper’s dramatically effective treatment of deafness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Petrarch’s letter to Boccaccio ‘on the proud and presumptuous behaviour of physicians’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Lechuga RI, Castro AC (2016).
Dramatic effects of control measures on deaths from yellow fever in Havana, Cuba, in the early 1900’s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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1.1 Why treatment uncertainties should be addressed

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1.2 Why treatment comparisons are essential

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2.1 Why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties

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Por que as comparações devem tratar de dúvidas legítimas?

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Por qué las comparaciones deben abordar una incertidumbre genuina

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Pourquoi les comparaisons doivent-elles tenir compte des incertitudes véritables

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السبب وراء الحاجة إلى الاختبارات غير المتحيزة

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لماذا ينبغي تناول المقارنات للشكوك الحقيقية؟

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مدى أهمية إجراء المقارنات

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