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Medical Research Council (1948)
Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a Medical Research Council investigation. BMJ 2:769-782.

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Ephraim A (1893)
Uber die Bedeutung de statistischen Methode für die Medicin [On the relevance of the statistical method for medicine]. Volkmann’s Sammlung Klinische Vortraege N.F. Innere Medicin 24:706-716. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel.

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Mesmer FA (1781)
Précis historique des faits relatifs au magnétisme animal jusques en avril 1781. Par M. Mesmer, Docteur en Médecine de la Faculté de Vienne. Ouvrage traduit de l'Allemand [Historical account of facts relating to animal magnetism up to April 1781. By M. Mesmer, Doctor in Medicine of the Vienna Faculty. Work translated from German]. A Londres [false imprint, probably Paris.] pp. 111-114; 182.

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Semmelweis I (1861)
Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. [The etiology, concept, and prophylaxis of childbed fever]. Budapest and Vienna; Hartleben.

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Lavoisier A-L de (1784)
Undated documents contained in: Mémoires de Lavoisier, Oeuvres, Tome III. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1865. p 509.

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Bacon, Roger (1266)
Opus maius. MS Digby 325, 15th century manuscript. Bodleian Library, Oxford.

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Faure JL (1759)
Recueil des pieces qui ont concouru pour le prix de L’Académie Royale de Chirurgie Vol 8 [Collection of reports that competed for the prize of the Royal Academy of Surgery]. Paris, P.Al Le Prieur.

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Lind J (1762)
An essay on the most effectual means of preserving the health of seamen, in the Royal Navy. London: D Wilson.

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Martic-Kehl MI,Schibli R, Schubiger PA (2012)
Can animal data predict human outcome? Problems and pitfalls of translational animal research. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 39:1492–1496. 10.1007/s00259-012-2175-z

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Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1550 BCE)
Case 25. Instruction for a dislocation of his mandible. (Original in the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine. Facsimile in Breasted JH (1930)). Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, IX 2-6. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

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Park WH (1912)
The role of animal experimentation in the discoveries leading to our present knowledge of the etiology, prevention and cure of diphtheria. JAMA 53:453-459.

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Ritskes-Hoitinga M, van Luijk J (2019)
How can systematic reviews teach us more about the implementation of the 3Rs and animal welfare? Animals 9:1163.

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Vollert J, Schenker E, Macleod M, Bespalov A, Wuerbel H, Michel M, Dirnagl U, Potschka H, Waldron AM, Wever K, Steckler T, van de Casteele T, Altevogt B, Sil A, Rice ASC, The EQIPD WP3 study group members (2020)
Systematic review of guidelines for internal validity in the design, conduct and analysis of preclinical biomedical experiments involving laboratory animals. BMJ Open Science 4:e100046. doi:10.1136/bmjos-2019-100046

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Chalmers I, Atkinson P, Badenoch D, Glasziou P, Austvoll-Dahlgren A, Oxman A, Clarke M (2019)
The James Lind Initiative: books, websites and databases to promote critical thinking about treatment claims, 2003 to 2018. Research Involvement and Engagement 5:6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40900-019-0138-2

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Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Leenaars M, Avey M, Rovers M, Scholten R (2014)
Systematic reviews of preclinical animal studies can make significant contributions to health care and more transparent translational medicine. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 3:ED000078.

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Green SB (2015)
Can animal data translate to innovations necessary for a new era of patient-centred and individualised healthcare? Bias in preclinical animal research. BMC Medical Ethics 16:53. DOI 10.1186/s12910-015-0043-7.

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Perel P, Roberts I, Sena E, Wheble P, Briscoe C, Sandercock S, Macleod M,  Mignini LE, Jayaram P, Khan KS (2007)
Comparison of treatment effects between animal experiments and clinical trials: systematic review. BMJ 334:197-200.

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Medical Research Council (1948)
Streptomycin treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Lancet 1:582-596.

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Chalmers I, ed (1988)
The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Gregory J (1772)
Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. London: Strahan and Cadell. (new ed.) Edinburgh: Creech.

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McCormack JP, Holmes DT (2020)
Your results may vary: the imprecision of medical measurements. BMJ 2020;368:m149 doi: 10.1136/bmj.m149

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Matthews RAJ (2008)
Medical progress depends on animal models – doesn’t it? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 101: 95–98. DOI 10.1258/jrsm.2007.070164

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Hooijmans CR, Tillema A, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2010)
Enhancing search efficiency by means of a search filter for finding all studies on animal experimentation in PubMed. Laboratory Animals 44:170-175

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Pound P, Ebrahim S, Sandercock P, Bracken MB, Roberts I on behalf of the Reviewing Animal Trials Systematically (RATS) Group (2020)
Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans? BMJ 328:514–7.

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De Vries RB, Hooijmans CR, Tillema A, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2013)
Letter to the editor. Updated version of the Embase search filter for animal studies. Laboratory Animals 48:88.

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Leenaars CHC, Kouwenaar C, Stafleu FR, Bleich A, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, de Vries RBM, Meijboom FLB (2019)
Animal to human translation: a systematic scoping review of reported concordance rates. J Transl Med 17:223. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1976-2.

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Hooijmans CR, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2013)
Progress in Using Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies to Improve Translational Research. PLoS Med 10(7): e1001482. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001482.

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Hooijmans CR, de Vries RBM, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Rovers MM, Leeflang MM, IntHout J, Wever KE, Hooft L, de Beer H, Kuijpers T, Macleod MR, Sena ES, ter Riet G, Morgan RL, Thayer KA, Rooney AA, Guyatt GH, Schünemann HJ, Langendam MW, GRADE Working Group (2018)
Facilitating healthcare decisions by assessing the certainty in the evidence from preclinical animal studies. PLoS One 13:e0187271. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187271.

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Chalmers I, Abbasi K (2020)
Developing the collaboration between the James Lind Library and the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2020;113(7):266-9. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0141076820937539

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Peers IS, South MC, Ceuppens PR, Bright JD, Pilling E (2014)
Can you trust your animal study data? Nature reviews. Drug discovery. 13. 10.1038/nrd4090-c1.

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Pound P, Ram R (2020)
Are researchers moving away from animal models as a result of poor clinical translation in the field of stroke? An analysis of opinion papers. BMJ Open Science 4:e100041. doi:10.1136/bmjos-2019-100041

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Begley CG, Ellis LM (2012)
Raise standards for preclinical cancer research. Nature 483:531.

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Leenaars M, Hooijmans CR, van Veggel N, ter Riet G, Leeflang M, Hooft L, van der Wilt GJ, Tillema A, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2012)
A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies. Laboratory Animals 46:24-31.

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Hooijmans CR, IntHout J, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Rovers MM (2014)
SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology. 14:43.

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Hooijmans CR, IntHout J, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Rovers MM (2014)
Meta-analyses of animal studies: an introduction of a valuable instrument to further improve healthcare. ILAR J. 55:418-26.

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De Vries RB, Hooijmans CR, Tillema A, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M (2011)
A search filter for increasing the retrieval of animal studies in Embase. Laboratory Animals 45:268-70.

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Hill AB (1937)
Principles of medical statistics. London: Lancet.

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Harvey W (c.1640-1657)
Marginalia. In: Aelius Galenus (1640). ΓΑΛΗΝΟΥ, Πρὸς ΘΡΑΣΥΒΟΥΛΟΝ, περὶ ἀρίστης αἱρέσεως. Galeni, De optima Secta, ad Thrasybulum. In: Goulston DT (editor). Galeni Opuscula hoc Libro comprehensa. London: Richard Badger, pp. 66–143.

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Chalmers I, Milne I, Tröhler U, Vandenbroucke J, Morabia A, Tait G, Dukan E (2008)
The James Lind Library: explaining and illustrating the evolution of fair tests of medical treatments. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 38:259-64.

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Bignall JR, Crofton J (1949)
Antihistamine drugs in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to streptomycin. BMJ 1:13-14.

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Medical Research Council (1944)
Clinical trial of patulin in the common cold. Lancet 2:373-5.

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Jacobs A, Borthwick WM (1950)
Streptomycin in urinary tuberculosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 43:453-466.

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Barnes HL (1912)
Report of 150 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis treated with tuberculin. JAMA 59:332-33.

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Mcguire LW, Redden WR (1919)
Treatment of Influenzal pneumonia by the use of convalescent human serum, Second report. JAMA 72:709-713. doi:10.1001/jama.1919.02610100017007

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Powers E, Witmer HL (1951)
An experiment in the prevention of delinquency: the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study. New York: Columbia University Press.

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Pan H, Peto R, Karim QA, Alejandria M, Henao-Restrepo AM, García CH, Kieny MP, Malekzadeh R, Murthy S, Preziosi MP, Reddy S, Periago MR, Sathiyamoorthy V, Røttingen JA, Swaminathan S, WHO Solidarity trial consortium. (2020)
Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19 –interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results. MedRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.15.20209817

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McCall WA (1923)
How to experiment in education. New York: Macmillan.

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RECOVERY Trial Team (2020)
Randomized Evaluation of COVID019 Therapy (RECOVERY). RECOVERY Central Coordinating Office, Oxford. www.recoverytrial.net

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Horby P, Mafham M, Linsell L, Bell JL, Staplin N, Emberson JR, Wiselka M, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, Prudon B, Whitehouse A, Felton T, Williams J, Faccenda J, Underwood J, Baillie JK, Chappell L, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Lim WS, Montgomery A, Rowan K, Tarning J, Watson JA, White NJ, Juszczak E, Haynes R, Landray MJ (2020)
Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Preliminary results from a multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.15.20151852

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Horby P, Lim WS, Emberson J, Mafham M, Bell J, Linsell L, Staplin N, Brightling C, Ustianowski A, Elmahi E, Prudon B, Green C, Felton T, Chadwick D, Rege K, Fegan C, Chappell LC, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffrey K, Montgomery A, Rowan K, Juszcak E, Baillie JK, Haynes R, Landray MJ, on behalf of the RECOVERY Collaborative Group (2020)
Effect of Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Preliminary Report. medRχiv. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.22.20137273

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Long ER, Ferebee SH (1950)
A controlled investigation of streptomycin treatment in tuberculosis. Public Health Reports 65:1421-1451.

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Bullowa JGM (1928)
Use of antipneumococcic refined serum in lobar pneumonia: data necessary for a comparison between cases treated with serum and cases not so treated, and the importance of a significant control series of cases. JAMA 90: 1354-1358.

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Balfour TG (1854)
Quoted in West C. Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. London, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, p 600.

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Hill AB (1937)
Artificial pneumothorax on statistical trial. Lancet 229: 535-536.

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Wagner-Jauregg J (1931)
Ueber die Infektionsbehandlung der progressiven Paralyse [On infection treatment of progressive paralysis]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 78:4-7.

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Cecil RL, Plummer N (1930)
Pneumococcus type I pneumonia - a study of eleven hundred and sixty-one cases, with especial reference to specific therapy. JAMA 95:1547-1553.

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Swedish National Association against Tuberculosis. Therapeutic Trials Committee (1950)
Para-aminosalicylic acid treatment in pulmonary tuberculosis. American Review of Tuberculosis 61:597-612.

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Choksy NH (1908)
On recent progress in serum-therapy of plague. BMJ 1:1282-1284.

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Netter A (1906)
Efficacité de l’ingestion de chlorure de calcium comme moyen préventif des éruptions consecutives aux injections de sérum [Effect of the ingestion of calcium chloride for preventing eruptions following serum injections]. Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie 58:279-280.

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Amberson JB, McMahon BT, Pinner M (1931)
A clinical trial of sanocrysin in pulmonary tuberculosis. American Review of Tuberculosis 24:401-435.

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Cousin M (1905)
Des éruptions consecutives aux injections de sérum antidiphthérique et de leur traitement prophylactique par l’ingestion de clorure de calcium. Thèse pour le Doctorat en médicine. Paris : Jules Rousset, 36-44.

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Tröhler U (2020)
Probabilistic thinking and the evaluation of therapies, 1700-1900. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gachelin G, Garner P, Ferroni E, Tröhler U, Chalmers I (2016).
Evaluating Cinchona bark and quinine for treating and preventing malaria. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Welsh BC, Podolsky SH, Zane SN (2020).
Between medicine and criminology: Richard Cabot’s contribution to the design of experimental evaluations of social interventions in the late 1930s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Meinert C (2019).
The trials and tribulations of the University Group Diabetes Program: lessons and reflections. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Altman DG, Simera I (2015).
A history of the evolution of guidelines for reporting medical research: the long road to the EQUATOR Network. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jenicek M (2006).
Méta-analyse en médecine: the first book on systematic reviews in medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jefferson T (2019).
Sponsorship bias in clinical trials – growing menace or dawning realisation? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Williams AN, O’Dell FJ, Aronson JK (2020).
Was William Harvey’s commitment to experimentation reflected in his clinical practice? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marson Smith P, Colquhoun D, Chalmers I (2019).
John Henry Gaddum’s 1940 guidance on controlled clinical trials JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH (2008).
Jesse Bullowa, specific treatment for pneumonia, and the development of the controlled clinical trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Antoine de Lavoisier’s role in designing a single-blind trial to assess whether ‘Animal Magnetism’ exists. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Matthews RAJ (2020).
The origins of the treatment of uncertainty in clinical medicine. Part 2: the emergence of probability theory and its limitations. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ramanna M (2014).
Nasarwanji Hormusji Choksy (1861-1939), a pioneer of controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Matthews RAJ (2020).
The origins of the treatment of uncertainty in clinical medicine. Part 1: Ancient roots, familiar disputes. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2006).
John Crofton (1912-2009). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (1987).
Ideas as reforms: Therapeutic Experiments and Medical Practice, 1900-1980. Philosophy Thesis, Massachusetts institute of technology. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2004).
The MRC randomized trial of streptomycin and its legacy: a view from the clinical front line. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Williams KJ (2005).
British Pharmaceutical Industry, Synthetic Drug Manufacture and the Clinical Testing of Novel Drugs, 1895-1939. Philosophy Thesis, University of Manchester. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bastian H (2004).
Down and almost out in Scotland: George Orwell, tuberculosis and getting streptomycin in 1948. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cox-Maksimov D (1997).
The Making of the Clinical Trial in Britain, 1910-1945: Expertise, the State and the Public. Philosophy Thesis, University of Cambridge. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Trahair B, Peters L (2020).
James Lind’s descendants. 2nd edition (supersedes Peters L 2006). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (1978).
Quantification in British Medicine and Surgery 1750-1830, with special Reference to its Introduction into Therapeutics. Philosophy Thesis, University of London. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2003).
Clifford Wilson (1906-1997) and Martin Pollock (1914-1999). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Yoshioka AY (1998).
Streptomycin, 1946: British central administration of supplies of a new drug of American origin with special reference to clinical trials in tuberculosis. Philosophy Thesis, University of London. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2013).
UK Medical Research Council and multicentre clinical trials: from a damning report to international recognition. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Scadding JW (2017).
John Guyett Scadding’s scepticism and pragmatism in addressing treatment uncertainties in clinical practice. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (1998).
Clinical trials in British medicine 1858 – 1948, with special reference to the development of the randomised controlled trial. Philosophy Thesis, University of Bristol. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bryder L (2010).
The Medical Research Council and clinical trial methodologies before the 1940s: the failure to develop a ‘scientific’ approach. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bull JP (1951).
A study of the history and principles of clinical therapeutic trials. MD Thesis, University of Cambridge. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Edwards MV (2004).
Control and the therapeutic trial 1918 – 1948. MD Thesis, University of London. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Why the 1948 MRC trial of streptomycin used treatment allocation based on random numbers. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (2015).
Why the MRC Therapeutic Trials Committee didn’t introduce controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Armitage P (2009).
A statistical note on the analysis of the 1948 MRC streptomycin trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bryder L (2014).
The Medical Research Council and treatments for tuberculosis before streptomycin. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2005).
Marc Daniels (1907-1953), a pioneer in establishing standards for clinical trial methods and reporting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Dukan E, Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
The advent of fair treatment allocation schedules in clinical trials during the 19th and early 20th centuries. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2007).
Reginald Bignall (1913-2000). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Clarke M (2002).
J Guy Scadding and the move from alternation to randomization. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Johnson A (2019).
Textbooks and other publications on controlled clinical trials, 1948 to 1983. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Scadding JG (2002).
Reflections on my studies of the effects of sulphonamide drugs in bacillary dysentery in Egypt, 1943-1944. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (2018).
Pioneering controlled trials of treatments for erysipelas and pneumonia in Glasgow, 1936-47. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tansey EM (2006).
Philip Montagu D’Arcy Hart (1900-2006). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell and the birth of randomized trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Altman DG, Grimes DA, Moher D, Hayes RJ (2018).
‘Allocation concealment’: the evolution and adoption of a methodological term. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2017).
Major Greenwood and clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Mann H, Djulbegovic B (2012).
Comparator bias: why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doll R (2003).
Controlled trials testing two or more treatments simultaneously. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Diaz M, Neuhauser D (2004).
Lessons from using randomization to assess gold treatment for tuberculosis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2006).
The Kendrick-Eldering-(Frost) pertussis vaccine field trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cox DR (2009).
Randomization for concealment. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Altman DG (2017).
Donald Mainland: anatomist, educator, thinker, medical statistician, trialist, rheumatologist. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hemminki E (2005).
Commentary on an early placebo controlled trial in Finland. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hampton J (2004).
An early parallel group trial in cardiology. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Reid CM (2008).
Donald Darnley Reid (1914-1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2017).
A controlled trial using a factorial design reported in 1946. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Silverman WA† (2003).
Personal reflections on lessons learned from randomized trials involving newborn infants, 1951 to 1967. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wartolowska K, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2017).
The use of placebos in controlled trials of surgical interventions: a brief history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Zwarenstein M (2016).
‘Pragmatic’ and ‘Explanatory’ attitudes to randomized trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Rodeck CH (2004).
Geoffrey William Theobald (1896–1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
Park’s story and Winters’ tale: alternate allocation clinical trials in turn of the Century America. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Campbell MJ (2012).
Doing clinical trials large enough to achieve adequate reductions in uncertainties about treatment effects. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gartlehner G, Stepper K (2011).
Julius Wagner-Jauregg: pyrotherapy, Simultanmethode, and ‘racial hygiene’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2011).
The origins of Austin Bradford Hill’s classic textbook of medical statistics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Garattini S (2018).
Italian controlled trials to assess prevention and treatment of malaria, 1900-1930s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
The introduction of numerical methods to assess the effects of medical interventions during the 18th century: a brief history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bird SM (2014).
The 1959 meeting in Vienna on controlled clinical trials – a methodological landmark. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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1.2 Why treatment comparisons are essential

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2.2 The need to compare like-with-like in treatment comparisons

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2.4 The need to avoid differences in the way treatment outcomes are assessed

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4.1 Improving reports of research

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About the Library

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Building the Library

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Diferencias en la manera en que se evalúan los resultados de los tratamientos

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Diferencias entre las personas comparadas

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Diferenças entre as pessoas comparadas

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Diferenças na maneira como os resultados dos tratamentos são avaliados

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Différences dans la façon dont les résultats des traitements sont évalués

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Différences entre les personnes comparées

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Por que as comparações são fundamentais?

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Por qué son esenciales las comparaciones

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Pourquoi des comparaisons sont-elles essentielles?

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Почему важны сравнения

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Различия в способах оценки результатов лечения

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Различия между сравниваемыми людьми

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الاختلافات بين الطريقة التي يجري بها تقيـيم المعالجات

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الفروق بين الأشخاص الخاضعين للمقارنة

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مدى أهمية إجراء المقارنات

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为什么对照必不可少

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治疗结局评价方式的差异

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被比较对象之间的差异

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JLL Book of EssaysHave you read the James Lind Library's Introduction to Fair Tests of Treatments?

We have edited, updated and abridged all of the Essays from the Library for 2019, and lavishly illustrated them with examples from the history of fair tests of treatments.  Share and enjoy!

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