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Heiberg P (1897)
Studier over den statistiske undersøgelsesmetode som hjælpemiddel ved terapeutiske undersøgelser [Studies on the statistical study design as an aid in therapeutic trials]. Bibliotek for Læger 89:1-40.

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Finney DJ (1965)
The design and logic of a monitor of drug use. Journal of Chronic Diseases 18:77-98.

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Paré A (1575)
1575 Les oeuvres de M. Ambroise Paré conseiller, et premier chirurgien du Roy avec les figures & portraicts tant de l'Anatomie que des instruments de Chirurgie, & de plusieurs Monstres. [The works of M. Ambroise Paré, advisor, and first surgeon to the King, with figures and portraits concerning anatomy as well as surgical instruments, and several monsters] Paris: Gabriel Buon.

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Sackett DL (2015)
Sackett DL. Interview in 2014 and 2015. Brian Haynes, ed. McMaster University.

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Bacon F (1645)
Franc Baconis de Verulamio / Summi Angliae Cancellarii /Novum organum scientiarum. Lugd. Bat: apud Adrianum Wiingaerde, et Franciscum Moiardum. Aphorism XLVI (pages 45-46).

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de Fontaney F (1703)
Letter to F de la Chaise, from Cheu-Chan (a port in the Province of ‘Chekian’), dated 15 February. In: Lettres Édifiantes Et Curieuses, Écrites Des Missions Étrangères Par Quelques Missionnaires De La Compagnie De Jesus [Edifying and curious letters, written from the foreign missions by some missionaries of the Company of Jesus]. 34 vols. Paris: Chez Nicolas le Clerc, rue Saint Jacques, à l’Image Saint Lambert, 1703-1776. Vol. 7 (1707): pp. 234-244.

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Jenicek M (1987)
Méta-analyse en médecine. Évaluation et synthèse de l’information clinique et épidémiologique. [Meta-analysis in medicine: evaluation and synthesis of clinical and epidemiological information] St.Hyacinthe and Paris: EDISEM and Maloine Éditeurs.

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Ibn Sīnā (c.1012 CE; c.402 AH)
Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb [Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine].

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Medical Research Council (1948)
Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a Medical Research Council investigation. BMJ 2:769-782.

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Bleuler E (1919)
Das Autistisch-Undisziplinierte Denken in der Medizin und Seine Überwindung [Autistic-undisciplined thinking in medicine and how to overcome it]. Berlin: Springer.

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Ephraim A (1893)
Uber die Bedeutung de statistischen Methode für die Medicin [On the relevance of the statistical method for medicine]. Volkmann’s Sammlung Klinische Vortraege N.F. Innere Medicin 24:706-716. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel.

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Behring EA, Boer NN, Kossel H (1893)
Zur Behandlung diphtheriekranker Menschen mit Diphtherieheilserum [On the treatment of diphtheria patients with curative diphtheria serum]. Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift 17:389-39.

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Wechselmann W (1910)
Über die Behandlung der Syphilis mit Dioxydiamido-arseno-benzol [On the treatment of syphilis with dioxy-diamido-arseno-benzol]. Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift 47:1261-1264.

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Birk G, Böhm A (1950)
Leberextrakt als Roborans [Is liver extract a ‘tonic’]? Die Medizinische Welt 1:51-52.

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Rheumatic Fever Working Party of the Medical Research Council of GB and the subcommittee of principal investigators of the American Council on Rheumatic Fever and Congenital Heart Disease, American Heart Association. (1955)
Treatment of acute rheumatic fever in children; a co-operative clinical trial of A.C.T.H., Cortisone, and Aspirin. BMJ 1:555-574

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Mesmer FA (1781)
Précis historique des faits relatifs au magnétisme animal jusques en avril 1781. Par M. Mesmer, Docteur en Médecine de la Faculté de Vienne. Ouvrage traduit de l'Allemand [Historical account of facts relating to animal magnetism up to April 1781. By M. Mesmer, Doctor in Medicine of the Vienna Faculty. Work translated from German]. A Londres [false imprint, probably Paris.] pp. 111-114; 182.

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Richerand A (1825)
Histoire des progrès récens de la chirurgie [History of recent progress in surgery]. Paris: Béchet le Jeune, p 27.

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al-Razi (10th century CE; 4th century AH)
Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb [The comprehensive book of medicine].

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Wagner-Jauregg J (1931)
Ueber die Infektionsbehandlung der progressiven Paralyse [On infection treatment of progressive paralysis]. Münchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 78:4-7.

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Béclard PA (1863)
Rapport général sur les prix décernés en 1862 [General report on the prizes awarded in 1862]. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale de Médecine XXVI, Paris: Ballière, pp. xxii-xxxv.

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Joint Committee of the Medical Research Council and Nuffield Foundation on Clinical Trials of Cortisone, A.C.T.H., and Other Therapeutic Measures in Chronic Rheumatic Diseases (1954)
A Comparison of Cortisone and Aspirin in the Treatment of Early Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis. BMJ 1:1223-1227.

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Jansen H (1910)
Behandling med Radiumemanation særlig ved gigtiske Lidelser [Treatment with radium emanation especially with rheumatic diseases]. Ugeskrift for Læger 72:1333-48.

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Van Helmont JB (1648)
Ortus medicinæ: Id est Initia physicæ inaudita. Progressus medicinae novus, in morborum ultionem, ad vitam longam [The dawn of medicine: That is, the beginning of a new Physic. A new advance in medicine, a victory over disease, to (promote) a long life]. Amsterodami: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, pp 526-527.

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Nitsch K (1949)
Ulcusleiden und vegetatives Nervensystem [Ulcer illness and the autonomic nervous system]. Medizinische Klinik 44:503-5.

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Martini P (1932)
Methodenlehre der Therapeutischen Untersuchung [Methodological principles for therapeutic investigations]. Berlin: Springer.

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Fibiger J (1898)
Om serumbehandling af difteri [On treatment of diphtheria with serum]. Hospitalstidende 6:309-325.

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Petrarca F (14th century)
Letter to Boccaccio. Print: Senilium Liber V Epistola iii in: Annotatio nonnullorum librorum seu epistolarum Francisci Petrarche. Venetiis: Torresanus de Asula (1501). Manuscript: Key passage in the late 14th / early 15th century manuscript Biblioteca Marciana Lat. XI 17 / Francesco Petrarca; fol. 28r, second column, lines 9 – 22. (Facsimile of MS: Petrarca F (2003). Seniles, (eds Stocchi MP, Marcon S). Venice: Marsilio.)

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Schwartz D, Flamant R, Lellouch J (1970)
L’essai thérapeutique chez l‘homme. Paris: Flammarion.

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Lind J (1753)
A treatise of the scurvy. In three parts. Containing an inquiry into the nature, causes and cure, of that disease. Together with a critical and chronological view of what has been published on the subject. Edinburgh: Printed by Sands, Murray and Cochran for A Kincaid and A Donaldson.

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Gavarret LDJ (1840)
Principes généraux de statistique médicale: ou développement des régles qui doivent présider à son emploi [General principles of medical statistics: or the development of rules that must govern their use]. Paris: Bechet jeune & Labé.

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Semmelweis I (1861)
Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. [The etiology, concept, and prophylaxis of childbed fever]. Budapest and Vienna; Hartleben.

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Lavoisier A-L de (1784)
Undated documents contained in: Mémoires de Lavoisier, Oeuvres, Tome III. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1865. p 509.

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Aulus Cornelius Celsus (1st century AD)
De Medicina. Florence: Nicolaus [Laurentii]

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al-Razi (10th century CE)
Shukuk ala Jalinus. [Doubts about Galen]

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Fioravanti L (1573)
Communication addressed to "Illustrissimo e Eccellentissimo Signor Al Protofisico Boldon e al Vicario di Giustizia", 22 xxxx 1573.

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Bacon, Roger (1266)
Opus maius. MS Digby 325, 15th century manuscript. Bodleian Library, Oxford.

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Alt K (1909)
Behandlungsversuche mit Arsenophenylglyzin bei Paralytikern [Treatment experiments with arsenophenylglycine in paralytics]. Muenchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 56:1457-1459.

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Jurin J (1724)
A letter to the learned Dr. Caleb Cotesworth, F. R. S. of the College of Physicians, London, and physician to St. Thomas's Hospital; containing a comparison between the danger of the natural small pox, and that given by inoculation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1722 - 1723), 32:213-227.

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Goodman LS, Wintrobe MM, Dameshek W, Goodman MJ, Gilman A and McLennan MT (1946)
Nitrogen mustard therapy. Use of methyl-bis(beta-chloroethyl)amine hydrochloride and tris(beta-chloroethyl)amine hydrochloride for Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, leukemia and certain allied and miscellaneous disorders. Journal of the American Medical Association 132:126-132.

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Haygarth J (1800)
Of the imagination, as a cause and as a cure of disorders of the body: exemplified by fictitious tractors, and epidemical convulsions. Bath: R. Crutwell.

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Löhner G, on behalf of a Society of truth-loving men (1835)
Die Homoöopathischen Kochsalzversuche zu Nürnberg [The homeopathic salt trials in Nurnberg]. Nürnberg in März.

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Hill AB (1937)
Principles of medical statistics. I. The aim of the statistical method; and General summary and conclusions. Lancet 1:41-43 and 883-885.

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Bingel A (1918)
Über Behandlung der Diphtherie mit gewöhnlichem Pferdeserum [On the treatment of diphtheria with normal horse serum]. Deutsches Archiv für Klinische Medizin 125:284-332.

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Faure JL (1759)
Recueil des pieces qui ont concouru pour le prix de L’Académie Royale de Chirurgie Vol 8 [Collection of reports that competed for the prize of the Royal Academy of Surgery]. Paris, P.Al Le Prieur.

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Lind J (1763)
Two papers on fevers and infection. London: D Wilson.

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Lind J (1771)
An essay on diseases incidental to Europeans in hot climates. London: Becket and De Hondt.

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Atkins D, Eccles M, Flottorp S, Guyatt GH, Henry D, Hill S, Liberati A, O'Connell D, Oxman AD, Phillips B, Schünemann H, Edejer TT, Vist GE, Williams JW and The GRADE Working Group (2004)
Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: Critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group. BMC Health Services Research 2004 4:38 doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-4-38.

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Louis PCA (1835)
Recherches sur les effets de la saignée dans quelques maladies inflammatoires et sur l'action de l'émétique et des vésicatoires dans la pneumonie [Research on the effects of bloodletting in some inflammatory illnesses and on the action of emetics and blistering in pneumonia]. Paris: Librairie de l'Académie royale de médecine.

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Hill AB (1937)
Principles of medical statistics. London: Lancet.

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Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Hama R, Thompson MJ, Spencer EA, Onakpoya I, Mahtani KR, Nunan D, Howick J, Heneghan CJ (2014)
Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD008965. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD008965.pub4.

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Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (13th century CE, 7th century AH)
The Book of the Two Pieces of Advice by Abd al-Latif, the son of Yusuf, to the General Public (Kitab al-Nasihatain min Abd al-Latif b. Yusuf ila l-nas kaffatan). Bursa: MS Hüseyin Çelebi 823, item number 5; medical section on fol. 62a-78a; philosophical section: fol. 78b-100b.

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Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (1994)
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Oxford: Update Software

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Einstein A (1954)
Statement for a conference of the Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, 3 March. Albert Einstein Archives, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 28-1025.

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Bradley SH, DeVito NJ, Lloyd KE, Richards GC, Rombey T, Wayant C, Gill PJ (2020)
Reducing bias and improving transparency in medical research: a critical overview of the problems, progress and suggested next steps. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 113:433-443.

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Stuart, James, King of Great Britaine, France and Ireland (1616)
A counterblaste to tobacco. In: The workes of the most high and mightie prince, James Published by James, Bishop of Winton, and Deane of his Majesties Chappel Royall. London: printed by Robert Barker and John Bill, printers to the Kings most excellent Majestie, pp 214-222.

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Medical Research Council (1948)
Streptomycin treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Lancet 1:582-596.

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Medical Research Council (1944)
Clinical trial of patulin in the common cold. Lancet 2:373-5.

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Kocher T (1883)
Ueber Kropfexstirpation und ihre Folgen [On goitre removal, and its consequences]. Archiv für Klinische Chirurgie 29:254-337.

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Bettencourt R, Serrano J-A (1891)
Un cas de myxœdème (cachexie pachydermique) traité par la greffe hypodermique du corps thyroïde d’un mouton. [A case of myxœdema (pachydermous cachexia) treated with hypodermic transplant of sheep thyroid gland]. Compte rendu de la 19eme session de l‘Association française our l’avancement des sciences, Limoges, 1890, pp 683-690.

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Scheuchzer JG (1729)
An account of the success of inoculating the small-pox in Great Britain, for the years 1727 and 1728: With a comparison between the mortality of the natural small-pox, and the miscarriages in that practice; as also some general remarks on its progress. London: J.Peele.

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Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O (2003)
Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ 326:1167-70.

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Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Kirkham J, Dwan K, Kramer S, Green S, Forbes A (2014)
Bias due to selective inclusion and reporting of outcomes and analyses in systematic reviews of randomised trials of healthcare interventions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014;(10):MR000035.

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Liebreich O (1869)
Das Chloral, ein neues Hypnoticum und Anaesthetikum [Chloral, a new hypnotic and anaesthetic]. Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift 6:325-327.

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Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry (1917)
Biniodol. JAMA 68: 650-51.

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Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry (1913)
Sinkina. JAMA 61:1056-1058.

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Bullowa JGM (1928)
Use of antipneumococcic refined serum in lobar pneumonia: data necessary for a comparison between cases treated with serum and cases not so treated, and the importance of a significant control series of cases. JAMA 90: 1354-1358.

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Alcock R (1840-41b)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 2 of 20). Lancet 1:217-220 and passim up to 2:849—858.

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Martic-Kehl MI,Schibli R, Schubiger PA (2012)
Can animal data predict human outcome? Problems and pitfalls of translational animal research. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 39:1492–1496. 10.1007/s00259-012-2175-z

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Alcock R (1840-41a)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 1 of 20). Lancet 1:105-111 and passim up to 2:849—858.

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Lind J (1762)
An essay on the most effectual means of preserving the health of seamen, in the Royal Navy. London: D Wilson.

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Vorderman AG (1897)
Onderzoek naar het verband tusschen den aard der rijstvoeding in de gevangenissen op Java en Madoera en het voorkomen van beri-beri onder de geïnterneerden. Batavia: Jav. Boekh. & Drukkerij.

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D'Aquila RT, Hughes MD, Johnson VA, Fischl MA, Sommadossi JP, Liou SH, Timpone J, Myers M, Basgoz N, Niu M, Hirsch MS (2021)
Nevirapine, zidovudine, and didanosine compared with zidovudine and didanosine in patients with HIV-1 infection. A randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled trial. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 241 Investigators. Annals of Internal Medicine 124:1019-1030.

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Bell JA (1948)
The epidemiological principles and procedures involved in a study of the prophylactic value of an alum-precipated mixture of diphtheria toxoid and pertussis vaccine. Thesis submitted to the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Public Health.

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Choksy NH (1900)
Professor Lustig’s plague serum. Lancet 2:291-292.

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Cecil RL, Plummer N (1930)
Pneumococcus type I pneumonia - a study of eleven hundred and sixty-one cases, with especial reference to specific therapy. JAMA 95:1547-1553.

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Hidalgo de Agüero, Bartolomé (1604)
Thesoro de la verdadera cirugía y vía particular contra la común. Sevilla: Francisco Pérez, 1604, pp. 32v.

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Pregl F (1896)
Zwei weitere ergographische Versuchsreihen über die Wirkung orchistischen Extraktes [Two further ergographic experimental series on the effects of testicular extracts]. Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie 62:379-399.

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Leitch I (1959)
The place of analytical and critical reviews in any growing biological science and the service they may render to research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information, 2 Vols. Washington DC: National Academies Press, p 571-588.

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Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1550 BCE)
Case 25. Instruction for a dislocation of his mandible. (Original in the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine. Facsimile in Breasted JH (1930)). Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, IX 2-6. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

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Bryson A (1854)
On the prophylactic influence of quinine. Medical Times and Gazette 8:6-7.

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Yavchitz A, Ravaud P, Altman DG, Moher D, Hrobjartsson A, Lasserson T, Boutron I (2016)
A new classification of spin in systematic reviews and meta-analyses was developed and ranked according to the severity. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 75:56-65.

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Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1988)
Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer. An overview of 61 randomized trials among 28,896 women. New England Journal of Medicine 319:1681-92.

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Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration (1988)
Secondary prevention of vascular disease by prolonged anti-platelet treatment. BMJ 296:320-331.

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Currie J (1797)
Medical reports on the effects of water, cold and warm, as a remedy in fever, and febrile diseases. Liverpool and London: M’Creery and Cadell.

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Ben Cao Tu Jing (11th century)
Atlas of Materia Medica. Song Dynasty (960-1279).

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Garvey WD, Lin N, Nelson CE (1970)
Communication in the physical and social sciences: the process of disseminating and assimilating information differ in these two groups of science. Science 170:1166-1173.

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MacMahon S, Collins R, Peto R, Koster RW, Yusuf S (1988)
Effects of prophylactic lidocaine in suspected acute myocardial infarction. An overview of results from the randomized, controlled trials. JAMA 260:1910-6.

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Nettleton T (1722)
Part of a letter from Dr. Nettleton, physician at Halifax, to Dr. Jurin, R. S. Sec concerning the inoculation of the small pox, and the mortality of that distemper in the natural way. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1722-1723) 32:209-212.

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Bahnsen P, Jacobsen E, Thesleff H (1938)
Studien über die Wirkung von beta-phenyl-isopropylaminsulfdat (Mecodrin) auf normale Menschen. [Studies on the effect of beta-phenyl-isopropylaminsulfdat (Mecodrin) on normal volunteers]. Klinische Wochenschrift 17:1074-1078.

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Kalke M (1935)
Hikoilukuurin vaikutuksesta influensan kulkuun ja sen leviämisestä eri paikkakunnilta saapuneiden asevelvollisten keskuuessa VJP:ssä v.1933. [The effect of a sweating cure on the course of influenza and its transmission among conscripts from different localities joining the Vuoksi Jaeger Battalion in 1933.] Sotilaslääketieteellinen Aikakauslehti, s28-34.

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Park WH (1912)
The role of animal experimentation in the discoveries leading to our present knowledge of the etiology, prevention and cure of diphtheria. JAMA 53:453-459.

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Hippocrates (5th Century BCE)
Ancient Medicine. In: Littré MPE (1839). Oeuvres complètes d’Hippocrate, vol 1. Traduction nouvelle avec le texte grec en regard, collationé sur les manuscrits et toutes les éditions; accompagnée d’une introduction, de commentaries medicaux, de variants et de notes philologiques; suivie d’ une table générale des matières. Paris: J-B Bailliere, p 572.

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Snodgrass WR, Anderson T, Rennie JL (1938)
Sulphamido-chrysoidine, sulphanilamide, and benzylsulphanilamide in the treatment of erysipelas. BMJ 2:399-403.

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Sollmann T (1917)
The crucial test of therapeutic evidence. JAMA 69:198-199.

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Celli A (1900)
La nuova profilassi della malaria nel Lazio [The new prophylaxis against malaria in Lazio]. Supplemento al Policlinico 6:1601-1606.

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Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P (1985)
Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease 27:335-371.

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Medical Research Council Therapeutic Trials Committee (1934)
The serum treatment of lobar pneumonia. BMJ 1:241-245.

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Snodgrass WR, Anderson T (1937)
Sulphanilamide in the treatment of erysipelas: a controlled series of 270 cases. BMJ 2:1156-9.

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Bransby ER, hunter JW, Magee HE, Milligan EHM, Rodgers TS (1944)
The influence of supplements of vitamins A, B1, B2, C, and D on growth, health and physical fitness. BMJ 1:77.

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Conn HO, Blitzer BL (1976)
Nonassociation of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic ulcer. New England Journal of Medicine 294(9):473-9.

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Chalmers TC, Eckhardt RD, Reynolds WE, Cigarroa JG, Deane N, Reifenstein RW, Smith CW, Davidson CS (1955)
The treatment of acute infectious hepatitis. Controlled studies of the effects of diet, rest, and physical reconditioning on the acute course of the disease and on the incidence of relapses and residual abnormalities. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34: 1163-1235.

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Ike RW, Arnold WJ, Rothschild EW, Shaw HL, and the Tidal Irrigation Cooperating Group. (1992)
Tidal irrigation versus conservative medical management in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized study. Journal of Rheumatology 19:772-9.

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Sutherland R (1934)
Vitamins A and D: their relation to growth and resistance to disease. BMJ 1:791–795.

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Cullen W (1772)
Clinical lectures. Edinburgh, Feb-April, 218-219.

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Snodgrass WR, Anderson T (1937)
Prontosil in the treatment of erysipelas: a controlled series of 312 cases. BMJ 2:101-104.

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Theobald GW (1937)
Effect of calcium and vitamin A and D on incidence of pregnancy toxaemia. Lancet 2:1397-1399.

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Antman EM, Lau J, Kupelnick B, Mosteller F, Chalmers TC (1992)
A comparison of results of meta-analyses of randomized control trials and recommendations of clinical experts. JAMA 268:240-248.

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Anderson T (1939)
Sulphanilamide in the treatment of measles. BMJ 1:716-718.

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Holmes OW (1861)
Currents and countercurrents in medical science with other addresses and essays. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1861.

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Bignall JR, Crofton J (1949)
Antihistamine drugs in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to streptomycin. BMJ 1:13-14.

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Balfour TG (1854)
Quoted in West C. Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. London, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, p 600.

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Choksy NH (1908)
On recent progress in serum-therapy of plague. BMJ 1:1282-1284.

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Ludwig CG (1752)
Commentarii de rebus scientia naturali et medicina gestis [Commentaries on achievements in the natural sciences and medicine] Vol.1, Part 1. Leipzig: Frederick Gleditsch.

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Goldberger J, Waring CH, Tanner WF (1923)
Pellagra prevention by diet among inmates. Public Health Reports 38:2361-2368.

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Greenwood M (1934)
Epidemics and crowd-diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Boyle R (1661)
In defense of Experimental Essays. In: Certain Physiological Essays, written at distant times, and on several occasions pp 4-5. London: Printed for Henry Herringman at the Anchor in the Lower walk in the New-Exchange.

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Massey I (1723)
A short and plain account of inoculation. With some remarks on the main argument made use of to recommend that practice, by Mr. Maitland and others. To which is added, a letter to the learned James Jurin, M.D.R.S. Secr. Col. Reg. Med. Lond. Soc. London: W. Meadows.

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Robin L, Van-Huan T (1935)
Essais comparés de prophylaxie médicamenteuse en région hyperendémique par la praequine et la quinine ou la quinacrine [Comparative trials of anti-malarial drug prophylaxis in a hyperendemic area with præquine, associated with quinine or quinacrine]. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie exotique 28:650-658.

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Hulshoff-Pol MDJ (1902)
Katjang idjo, un nouveau medicament contre le béri-béri [Katjang idjo (mung beans), a new treatment for beri-beri]. Janus 7:524-581.

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Alanson E (1782)
Practical observations on amputation, and the after-treatment, 2nd edn. London: Joseph Johnson.

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al-Razi (10th century CE; 4th century AH)
Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb [The comprehensive book of medicine]. As cited in Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿah. ʿUyūn al-anbāʾ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbāʾ [The best accounts of the classes of physicians]. Available in MüIler A, ed. A thirteenth-century history of physicians. 2 vols. Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿah al-Wahbiyyah / Königsberg: Selbstverlag, 1882–4. Vol I, p 314 (five lines from bottom).

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Devine EC, Cook TD (1983)
A meta-analytic analysis of effects of psychoeducational interventions on length of postsurgical hospital stay. Nursing Research Practice 32(5):267-74.

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Thorley AS, Craske N (1950)
Comparison and estimate of group and individual methods of treatment. BMJ 1:97-100.

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Wanscher O (1877)
Om Diphteritis og Croup - særligt med hensyn til Tracheostomien ved samme. [On diphtheria and croup - especially regarding tracheostomy in this condition]. Disputats [Thesis]. Jacob Lund: Kjøbenhavn, p 67-68.

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Djulbegovic B, Lacevic M, Cantor A, Fields KK, Bennett CL, Adams JR, Kuderer NM, Lyman GH (2000)
The uncertainty principle and industry-sponsored research. Lancet 356:635-638.

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Park WH, Bullowa JGM, Rosenbluth NM (1928)
The treatment of lobar pneumonia with refined specific antibacterial serum. JAMA 91:1503-1508.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2011).
The origins of Austin Bradford Hill’s classic textbook of medical statistics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wessely S (2009).
Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: the need to test untested theories. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Glasziou P, Aronson JK (2017).
A brief history of clinical evidence updates and bibliographic databases JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (2018).
Pioneering controlled trials of treatments for erysipelas and pneumonia in Glasgow, 1936-47. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
The use of historical controls and concurrent controls to assess the effects of sulphonamides, 1936-1945. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Huth EJ (2006).
Benjamin Franklin’s (1706-1790), place in the history of medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
van Helmont’s proposal for a randomised comparison of treating fevers with or without bloodletting and purging. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Schlesselman JJ (2015).
Jerome Cornfield’s Bayesian approach to assessing interim results in clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jefferson T (2019).
Sponsorship bias in clinical trials – growing menace or dawning realisation? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cochrane AL, Blythe M (2004).
Sickness in Salonica. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doyle D (2011).
Thomas John MacLagan (1838-1903). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stjernswärd J (2013)
Personal reflections on contributions to pain relief, palliative care and global cancer control JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Altman DG, Grimes DA, Moher D, Hayes RJ (2018).
‘Allocation concealment’: the evolution and adoption of a methodological term. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Dukan E, Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
The advent of fair treatment allocation schedules in clinical trials during the 19th and early 20th centuries. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tsiompanou E, Marketos SG† (2012).
Hippocrates: timeless still. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ferroni E, Jefferson T, Gachelin G (2011).
Angelo Celli and research on the prevention of malaria in Italy a century ago. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2005).
Two controlled trials of supplementary feeding of British school children in the 1920s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Löwy I (2010).
Martin Arrowsmith’s clinical trial: scientific precision and heroic medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Reflections on translating passages on ‘empirical’ and ‘dogmatic’ medicine in Celsus’s De medicina. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Haynes RB (2016).
Improving reports of research by more informative abstracts: a personal reflection JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2006).
The Kendrick-Eldering-(Frost) pertussis vaccine field trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Reid CM (2008).
Donald Darnley Reid (1914-1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH, Davey Smith G (2011).
Park’s story and Winters’ tale: alternate allocation clinical trials in turn of the Century America. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2017).
Major Greenwood and clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stylianou C, Kelnar C (2008).
The introduction of successful treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2014).
Statistics and the British controversy about the effects of Joseph Lister’s system of antisepsis for surgery, 1867-1890. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2004).
The MRC randomized trial of streptomycin and its legacy: a view from the clinical front line. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Huth EJ (2006).
Jules Gavarret’s Principes Généraux de Statistique Médicale: a pioneering text on the statistical analysis of the results of treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2012).
The origins of vaccination: no inoculation, no vaccination. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Williams AN, O’Dell FJ, Aronson JK (2020).
Was William Harvey’s commitment to experimentation reflected in his clinical practice? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Howick J (2016).
Aulus Cornelius Celsus and ‘empirical’ and ‘dogmatic’ medicine JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gachelin G (2013).
The interaction of scientific evidence and politics in debates about preventing malaria in 1925. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Maehle A-H (2011).
Four early clinical studies to assess the effects of Peruvian bark. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marson Smith P, Colquhoun D, Chalmers I (2019).
John Henry Gaddum’s 1940 guidance on controlled clinical trials JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Armitage P (2013).
The evolution of ways of deciding when clinical trials should stop recruiting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jick H (2008).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs: a brief personal history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Straus S, Eisinga A, Sackett D† (2015).
What drove the Evidence Cart? Bringing the library to the bedside. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Huth EJ (2005).
Quantitative evidence for judgments on the efficacy of inoculation for the prevention of smallpox: England and New England in the 1700s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Goodman NW (2017).
John Shaw Billings: creator of Index Medicus and medical visionary. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bird A (2018).
James Jurin and the avoidance of bias in collecting and assessing evidence on the effects of variolation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Oliver S (2014).
Advantages of concurrent preparation and reporting of systematic reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2015).
Why did I become a clinician-trialist? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Huth EJ (2006).
Transatlantic ideas on the philosophy of therapeutics in the middle of the 19th century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Williams KJ (2009).
The introduction of ‘chemotherapy’ using arsphenamine – the first magic bullet. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dickersin K, Chalmers F (2014).
Thomas C Chalmers (1917-1995): a pioneer of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Petrarch’s letter to Boccaccio ‘on the proud and presumptuous behaviour of physicians’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Davey Smith G (2006).
Capitalising on Mendelian randomization to assess the effects of treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tognoni G, Franzosi MG, Garattini S (2018).
Embedding patient- and public health-oriented research in a national health service: the GISSI experience. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2012).
The origins of inoculation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Brinkmann R, Podolsky SH (2021).
The ‘Personal Equation’ as observer bias, and proposed methods to contain it in Anglo-American medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and scurvy: 1747 to 1795. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2004).
Ambroise Paré’s accounts of new methods for treating gunshot wounds and burns. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2012).
John Haygarth’s 18th century ‘Rules of Prevention’ for eradicating smallpox. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Silverman WA†, Chalmers I (2002).
Casting and drawing lots: a time-honoured way of dealing with uncertainty and for ensuring fairness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bastian H (2004).
Down and almost out in Scotland: George Orwell, tuberculosis and getting streptomycin in 1948. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bryder L (2014).
The Medical Research Council and treatments for tuberculosis before streptomycin. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Burch D (2009).
Astley Paston Cooper (1768–1841), anatomist, radical, and surgeon. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2015).
Selective suppression by the medical establishment of unwelcome research findings: The cholera treatment evaluation by the General Board of Health, London 1854. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Spain P, Kadan-Lottick N (2010).
Observations of unprecedented remissions following novel treatment for acute leukemia in children in 1948. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bishop D, Gill E (2019).
Robert Boyle on the importance of reporting and replicating experiments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Podolsky SH (2008).
Jesse Bullowa, specific treatment for pneumonia, and the development of the controlled clinical trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2010).
Thomas Nettleton and the dawn of quantitative assessments of the effects of medical interventions. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Opinel A, Gachelin G (2010).
French 19th century contributions to the development of treatments for diphtheria. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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O'Rourke K (2006).
A historical perspective on meta-analysis: dealing quantitatively with varying study results. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wartolowska K, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2017).
The use of placebos in controlled trials of surgical interventions: a brief history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Why the 1948 MRC trial of streptomycin used treatment allocation based on random numbers. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Garattini S (2018).
Italian controlled trials to assess prevention and treatment of malaria, 1900-1930s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Birbeck E (2011).
The Royal Hospital Haslar: from Lind to the 21st century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2006).
Archie Cochrane (1909-1988). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Grimes DA (2007).
Discovering the need for randomized controlled trials in obstetrics: a personal odyssey. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hytten F (2009).
Isabella Leitch’s contributions to the development of systematic reviews of research evidence. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Guyatt GH, Oxman AD (2009).
Medicine’s methodological debt to the social sciences. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2010).
The first British textbook of medical statistics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Huth EJ (2008).
The move toward setting scientific standards for the content of medical review articles. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2007).
Use of rotation to allocate patients to homeopathic or regular medical services in Cook County Hospital, Chicago, 1882. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Scadding JG (2002).
Reflections on my studies of the effects of sulphonamide drugs in bacillary dysentery in Egypt, 1943-1944. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Lee MR (2005).
William Withering (1741-1799), a biographical sketch of a Birmingham Lunatic. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2004).
Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis and the evaluation of bloodletting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Silverman WA† (2003).
Personal reflections on lessons learned from randomized trials involving newborn infants, 1951 to 1967. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
An early Medical Research Council controlled trial of vitamins for preventing infection. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2005).
Mesmer’s 1780 proposal for a controlled trial to test his method of treatment using ‘Animal Magnetism’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2019).
Doug Altman’s prescience in recognizing the need to reduce biases before tackling imprecision in Systematic Reviews. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Thacker SB (2009).
How I came to write papers for clinicians in the late 1980s about improving the quality of reviews. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Kerr CE, Milne I, Kaptchuk TJ (2007).
William Cullen and a missing mind-body link in the early history of placebos. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bird SM (2014).
The 1959 meeting in Vienna on controlled clinical trials – a methodological landmark. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Antoine de Lavoisier’s role in designing a single-blind trial to assess whether ‘Animal Magnetism’ exists. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Rennie D, Chalmers I (2009).
Exposing the dangers to patients of medical reviews and textbooks that ignore scientific principles. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Campbell MJ (2012).
Doing clinical trials large enough to achieve adequate reductions in uncertainties about treatment effects. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tansey EM (2006).
Philip Montagu D’Arcy Hart (1900-2006). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Senn SJ, Chalmers I (2021).
Giving and taking: ethical treatment assignment in controlled trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sinclair L (2007).
Recognising, treating and understanding pernicious anaemia. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Peto R (2016).
Reflections on the design and analysis of clinical trials and meta-analyses in the 1970s and 1980s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Nasser M, Tibi A, Savage-Smith E (2007).
Ibn Sina’s Canon of Medicine: 11th century rules for assessing the effects of drugs. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wager E (2015).
Good Publication Practice 3: reflections on becoming a guideline grandmother. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Lechuga RI, Castro AC (2016).
Dramatic effects of control measures on deaths from yellow fever in Havana, Cuba, in the early 1900’s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Treasure T (2016).
Documenting the dramatic effects of operative treatment of mitral stenosis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Joosse NP, Pormann PE (2008).
Archery, mathematics, and conceptualising inaccuracies in medicine in 13th century Iraq and Syria. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Matthews RAJ (2020).
The origins of the treatment of uncertainty in clinical medicine. Part 2: the emergence of probability theory and its limitations. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Adams CE (2004).
William Halse Rivers (1864-1922). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bastian H (2007).
Lucy Wills (1888-1964), the life and research of an adventurous independent woman. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bracken MB (2008).
Why animal studies are often poor predictors of human reactions to exposure. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2006).
Joseph Goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marušić A, Fatović-Ferenčić S (2012).
Adoption of the double dummy trial design to reduce observer bias in testing treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pormann PE (2013).
Qualifying and quantifying medical uncertainty in 10th century Baghdad: Abu Bakr al-Razi. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Ramanna M (2014).
Nasarwanji Hormusji Choksy (1861-1939), a pioneer of controlled clinical trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Mann H, Djulbegovic B (2012).
Comparator bias: why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2005).
Marc Daniels (1907-1953), a pioneer in establishing standards for clinical trial methods and reporting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Towards endocrinology: Theodor Kocher’s 1883 account of the unexpected effects of total ablation of the thyroid. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sugiyama Y, Seita A (2013).
Kanehiro Takaki and the control of beriberi in the Japanese Navy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doyle D (2011).
Thomas MacLagan’s 1876 demonstration of the dramatic effects of salicin in rheumatic fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
George Starkey’s 1658 challenge to Galenists to compare their treatment results with his. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2007).
James Angus Doull and the well-controlled common cold. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Toth B (2009).
19th century controlled trials to test whether belladonna prevents scarlet fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Nasser M, Tibi A (2006).
Ibn Hindu and the science of medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hampton J (2015).
Therapeutic fashion and publication bias: the case of anti-arrhythmic drugs in heart attack. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Booth CC† (2002).
John Haygarth FRS (1740-1827). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2007).
Reginald Bignall (1913-2000). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tibi S (2005).
Al-Razi and Islamic medicine in the 9th Century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Edwards M (2010).
Dora Colebrook and the evaluation of light therapy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Adolf Bingel’s blinded, controlled comparison of different anti-diphtheritic sera in 1918. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Rodeck CH (2004).
Geoffrey William Theobald (1896–1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gartlehner G, Stepper K (2011).
Julius Wagner-Jauregg: pyrotherapy, Simultanmethode, and ‘racial hygiene’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2011).
Observation and experimentation in developing ‘the Suttonian Method’ of inoculation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sidebottom E (2012).
Roger Bacon and the beginnings of experimental science in Britain. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2008).
William Watson’s use of controlled clinical experiments in 1768. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter: learning from natural experiments, ‘placebos’, and the state of mind of a patient in the 18th century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2008).
A 1955 clinical trial report that changed my career. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stjernswärd J (2009)
Meta-analysis as a manifestation of ‘bondförnuft’ (‘peasant sense’). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Matthews RAJ (2020).
The origins of the treatment of uncertainty in clinical medicine. Part 1: Ancient roots, familiar disputes. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW, Williams AE (2008).
Zabdiel Boylston’s evaluation of inoculation against smallpox. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Elwood P (2004).
The first randomized trial of aspirin for heart attack and the advent of systematic overviews of trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gluud C (2010).
Danish contributions to the evaluation of serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Treasure T (2017).
Turning blue babies pink: Alfred Blalock’s shunt for Fallot’s Tetralogy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Clarke M (2004).
The 1944 patulin trial of the British Medical Research Council: an example of how concerted common purpose can get reliable answers to important questions very quickly. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and the evaluation of clinical practice. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pormann PE (2018).
Concepts of patient groups in 10th-century Iraq and Persia JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Furberg CD (2009).
How should one analyse and interpret clinical trials in which patients don’t take the treatments assigned to them? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bailey R, Howick J (2018).
Did John Stuart Mill influence the design of controlled clinical trials? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gluud C, Hilden J (2008).
Povl Heiberg’s 1897 methodological study on the statistical method as an aid in therapeutic trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Glasziou PP, Tikkinen KAO (2021).
The RECOVERY trial platform: a milestone in the development and execution of treatment evaluation during an epidemic. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Senn SJ (2017).
Cushny and Peebles, optical isomers, and the birth of modern statistics. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Houston C (2004).
Ferguson’s BCG research – Canada’s first randomized clinical trial? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Adams CE (2009).
James Crichton Browne and controlled evaluation of drug treatment for mental illness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2007).
An early 18th century proposal for improving medicine by tabulating and analysing practice. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cockerill A, Goble PJ (2012).
Thomas Graham Balfour, pioneering medical statistician and stern disciplinarian. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Diaz M, Neuhauser D (2004).
Lessons from using randomization to assess gold treatment for tuberculosis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Crofton J† (2006).
John Crofton (1912-2009). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Jefferson T (2006).
Why the MRC randomized trials of whooping cough (pertussis) vaccines remain important more than half a century after they were done. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2010).
William Thomas Russell (1888-1953). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Weingarten S (2018).
Food in Daniel 1:5-16: the first report of a controlled experiment? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter (1728-1793). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind at Haslar Hospital 1758-1774: a methodological theorist. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Clarke M (2021).
The true meaning of DICE: Don’t Ignore Chance Effects JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Johann Friedrich de Quervain (1868-1940). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2012).
Adolphe Vorderman’s 1897 study on beriberi: an example of scrupulous efforts to avoid bias. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2007).
Russell LaFayette Cecil (1881-1965). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stolberg M (2006).
Inventing the randomized double-blind trial: The Nürnberg salt test of 1835. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (1987).
Ideas as reforms: Therapeutic Experiments and Medical Practice, 1900-1980. Philosophy Thesis, Massachusetts institute of technology. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2014).
The mustard gas experiments done by the British Homoeopathic Society for the Ministry of Home Security, 1941-42. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M (2006).
Jesse GM Bullowa (1879-1943). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Rolls R (2003).
Caleb Hillier Parry (1755-1822). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Louis-Courvoisier M (2007).
An 18th century controlled trial prompted by a potential shortage of hospital beds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Neuhauser D, Diaz M, Chalmers I (2007).
A puzzling omission in a great medical textbook edited by a pioneer of controlled trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2013).
Francis Bacon’s comments on the power of negative observations in his Novum Organum, first published in 1620. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boren SA, Diaz M, Neuhauser D (2006).
James Burns Amberson (1890-1979). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doll R (2003).
Controlled trials testing two or more treatments simultaneously. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
John Clark 1780 & 1792: learning from properly kept records. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Volmink J (2005).
The willow as a Hottentot (Khoikhoi) remedy for rheumatic fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2017).
A controlled trial using a factorial design reported in 1946. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stoll S (2004).
Paul Martini’s Methodology of therapeutic investigation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Clarke M (2002).
J Guy Scadding and the move from alternation to randomization. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Kaptchuk TJ (2011).
A brief history of the evolution of methods to control observer biases in tests of treatments. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2009).
Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849-51. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers J (2005).
Sir George Chalmers (c 1720-1791), portraitist of James Lind. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Middleton J (2008).
Pellagra and the blues song ‘Cornbread, meat and black molasses’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2010).
Edward Jenner’s 1798 report of challenge experiments demonstrating the protective effects of cowpox against smallpox. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Olsen SF (2002).
The People’s League of Health trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
The contribution of William Fletcher’s 1907 report to finding a cause and cure for beriberi. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Williams KJ (2005).
British Pharmaceutical Industry, Synthetic Drug Manufacture and the Clinical Testing of Novel Drugs, 1895-1939. Philosophy Thesis, University of Manchester. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Solis C (2011).
Bartolomé Hidalgo de Agüero’s 16th century, evidence-based challenge to the orthodox management of wounds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Lee MR (2004).
The miracle of St. Alfege’s: discovering a treatment for myaesthenia gravis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Huth EJ (2006).
Elisha Bartlett (1804–1855), an American disciple of Jules Gavarret. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Kaptchuk TJ (2004).
Early use of blind assessment in a homeopathic scientific experiment. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wickenden JVS (2011).
The strange disappearances of James Lind. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2013).
Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis’ studies of death in childbirth. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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La Rochelle P (2017).
Using randomized, double-blind, n-of-1 trials of food challenge to diagnose food allergy and assess the effectiveness of food allergen avoidance. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Milne I, Chalmers I (2014).
Alexander Lesassier Hamilton’s 1816 report of a controlled trial of bloodletting. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Erill S (2008).
Louis Lasagna (1923-2003). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2013).
William Cheselden’s 1740 presentation of data on age-specific mortality after lithotomy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cox-Maksimov D (1997).
The Making of the Clinical Trial in Britain, 1910-1945: Expertise, the State and the Public. Philosophy Thesis, University of Cambridge. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hemminki E (2005).
Commentary on an early placebo controlled trial in Finland. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Dean ME (2003).
‘An innocent deception’: placebo controls in the St Petersburg homeopathy trial, 1829-30. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Withering’s 1785 appeal for caution when reporting on a new medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vessey MP (2006).
Learning how to control biases in studies to identify adverse effects of drugs. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Trahair B, Peters L (2020).
James Lind’s descendants. 2nd edition (supersedes Peters L 2006). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sutton G (2004).
James Lind aboard Salisbury. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Klar N, Donner A (2004).
The impact of E.F. Lindquist’s text “Statistical Analysis in Educational Research” on cluster randomisation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
MacLean 1818: comparing like with like and recognising ethical double standards in therapeutic experimentation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2007).
Claude Bernard, statistics, and comparative trials. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gøtzsche PC (2004).
Niels Finsen’s treatment for lupus vulgaris. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I (2010).
Joseph Asbury Bell (1904-1968). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Nunn JF (2008).
A treatment that has stood the test of time for over three and a half millennia. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hampton J (2004).
An early parallel group trial in cardiology. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (1978).
Quantification in British Medicine and Surgery 1750-1830, with special Reference to its Introduction into Therapeutics. Philosophy Thesis, University of London. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2003).
Clifford Wilson (1906-1997) and Martin Pollock (1914-1999). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Farewell V, Johnson A (2010).
Hilda Woods (1892-1971). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Shannon H (2008).
A statistical note on Karl Pearson’s 1904 meta-analysis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gluud C (2008).
Povl Heiberg (1868-1963). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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La Rochelle P, Julien A-S (2013).
How dramatic were the effects of handwashing on maternal mortality observed by Ignaz Semmelweis? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Burton MJ (2015).
Astley Cooper’s dramatically effective treatment of deafness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Peto J (2016).
Reflections on the importance of strict adherence to treatment protocols: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children in the 1970s in the US and the UK. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Yoshioka AY (1998).
Streptomycin, 1946: British central administration of supplies of a new drug of American origin with special reference to clinical trials in tuberculosis. Philosophy Thesis, University of London. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cox DR (2009).
Randomization for concealment. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Adolf Bingel (1879-1953). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Armitage P (2002).
Randomisation and alternation: a note on Diehl et al. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Armitage P (2009).
A statistical note on the analysis of the 1948 MRC streptomycin trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boren SA (2006).
Max Pinner (1891-1948). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Thalidomide: an unanticipated adverse effect. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2008).
Zabdiel Boylston (1679/80-1766). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Peters L, Hepner J (2009).
George Chalmers’ portrait of James Lind, 1783-2008: a reconstruction. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
Aspirin: an unanticipated beneficial effect. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Toth B (1998).
Clinical trials in British medicine 1858 – 1948, with special reference to the development of the randomised controlled trial. Philosophy Thesis, University of Bristol. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson (1747-1823). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Gong Y, Gluud C (2003).
Commentary on the Ben Cao Tu Jing (11th century). Atlas of Materia Medica. Song Dynasty (960-1279). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Altman DG (2017).
Avoiding bias in trials in which allocation ratio is varied. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson 1782: responsibility in surgical innovation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Charles MacLean (c.1766-1824). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Edwards MV (2004).
Control and the therapeutic trial 1918 – 1948. MD Thesis, University of London. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Spanager L (2005).
Jansen’s 1910 use of a single blind experiment to assess the effects of radioactive water on rheumatic diseases. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bull JP (1951).
A study of the history and principles of clinical therapeutic trials. MD Thesis, University of Cambridge. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cook H (2010).
Testing the effects of Jesuit’s bark in the Chinese Emperor’s court. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Stoll S (2010).
Paul Franz Xavier Martini (1889-1964). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Spanager L (2010).
Hans Ditlev Jansen (1875–1933). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Hemminki E (2010).
Martti Simeon Kalke (1898-1976). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
John Clark (1744-1805). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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JLL Bulletin Editors (2010).
Commentary on Rapport général sur les prix décernés en 1862. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale de Médecine XXVI, Paris: Ballière, p xxii-xxxv. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Craft A (2006).
James Stansfeld (1917-1998). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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1.0 Introduction to JLL Explanatory Essays

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1.1 Why treatment uncertainties should be addressed

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1.2 Why treatment comparisons are essential

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1.3 Why treatment comparisons must be fair

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2.0 Avoiding biased treatment comparisons

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2.1 Why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties

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2.2 The need to compare like-with-like in treatment comparisons

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2.3 Why avoiding differences between treatments allocated and treatments received is important

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2.4 The need to avoid differences in the way treatment outcomes are assessed

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2.5 Bias introduced after looking at study results

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2.6 Reducing biases in judging unanticipated possible treatment effects

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2.7 Dealing with biased reporting of the available evidence

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2.8 Avoiding biased selection from the available evidence

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2.9 Recognizing researcher/sponsor biases and fraud

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3.0 Taking account of the play of chance

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3.1 Recording and interpreting numbers in testing treatments

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3.2 Quantifying uncertainty in treatment comparisons

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3.3 Reducing the play of chance using meta-analysis

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4.0 Bringing it all together for the benefit of patients and the public

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4.1 Improving reports of research

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4.2 Preparing and maintaining systematic reviews of all the relevant evidence

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4.3 Using the results of research

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About Fair Tests

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About the Library

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Building the Library

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Comment faire face à la communication biaisée des éléments de preuve disponibles

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Como lidar com o vício da evidência disponível

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Considerações sobre o efeito do acaso

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Cómo considerar la obra de la casualidad

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Cómo evitar los sesgos en la selección de la evidencia disponible

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Cómo evitar los sesgos en las comparaciones

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Cómo manejar los sesgos en los informes de la evidencia disponible

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Cómo reducir la obra de la casualidad a través del metanálisis

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Diferencias en la manera en que se evalúan los resultados de los tratamientos

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Diferencias entre el tratamiento que se pretende administrar y el que realmente se recibe

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Diferencias entre las personas comparadas

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Diferenças entre as pessoas comparadas

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Diferenças entre tratamento planejado e tratamento de fato realizado

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Diferenças na maneira como os resultados dos tratamentos são avaliados

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Différences dans la façon dont les résultats des traitements sont évalués

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Différences entre les méthodes de traitement prévues et les traitements effectivement reçus

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Différences entre les personnes comparées

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Experimentos controlados de tratamentos na atenção à saúde

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Identificación de los efectos no previstos de los tratamientos

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Identification des effets non prévus des traitements

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Identificação dos efeitos imprevistos do tratamento

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Por que as comparações devem tratar de dúvidas legítimas?

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Por que as comparações são fundamentais?

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Por que os experimentos controlados são necessários?

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Por qué las comparaciones deben abordar una incertidumbre genuina

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Por qué se necesitan pruebas auténticas

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Por qué son esenciales las comparaciones

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Pourquoi des comparaisons sont-elles essentielles?

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Pourquoi des essais contrôlés sont-ils nécessaires

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Pourquoi les comparaisons doivent-elles tenir compte des incertitudes véritables

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Precaução com o vício da evidência disponível

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Precaução nas comparações com vícios

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Redução do efeito do acaso usando a meta-análise

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Revisiones sistemáticas de toda la evidencia pertinente

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Revisões sistemáticas das evidências relevantes

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Revue systématique de tous les éléments de preuve pertinents

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Réduire l’effet du hasard au moyen des méta-analyses

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Tenir compte de l’effet du hasard

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Using the Library

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Why we need the James Lind Library

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Éviter des comparaisons biaisées

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Éviter un choix biaisé parmi les éléments de preuve disponibles

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Выявление непредвиденных последствий лечения

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Ограничение фактора случайности с помощью метаанализа

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Почему важны сравнения

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Почему необходимы объективные тесты

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Почему при проведении сравнений необходимо учитывать внутренние неопределенности

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Предотвращение необъективных сравнений

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Предотвращение субъективного отбора информации из имеющейся базы фактических данных

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Различия в способах оценки результатов лечения

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Различия между планируемыми и фактически назначены курсом лечения

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Различия между сравниваемыми людьми

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Решение проблемы субъективного представления имеющихся фактических данных

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Систематические анализы всех соответствующих фактических данных

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Учет фактора случайности

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استخدام التحليل التجميعي من أجل التقليل من تأثير لعبة الصدفة

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الإدراك الكامل للعبة الصدفة

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الاختلافات بين الطريقة التي يجري بها تقيـيم المعالجات

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التعامل مع التقارير المتحيزة حول البيِّنات المتاحة

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التعرُّف على تأثيرات المعالجات غير المتحسَّبة

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السبب وراء الحاجة إلى الاختبارات غير المتحيزة

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الفروق بين الأشخاص الخاضعين للمقارنة

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الفوارق بين المعالجات المقصودة والمعالجات المتلقَّاة فعلياً

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المراجعات المنهجية لجميع البيِّنات ذات الصلة

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تجنُّب الانتقاء المتحيّز من البيِّنات المتوفرة

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تفادي المقارنات المتحيِّزة

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لماذا ينبغي تناول المقارنات للشكوك الحقيقية؟

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مدى أهمية إجراء المقارنات

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为什么对照必不可少

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为什么对照必须解决真正的不确定性

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为什么需要进行公平试验

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利用Meta分析减少机遇因素效应

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处理对现有证据带有偏倚的报告

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对所有相关证据的系统评价

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治疗结局评价方式的差异

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考虑机遇因素

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被比较对象之间的差异

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识别治疗措施的非预期效应

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避免对现有证据带有偏倚的选择

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避免带有偏倚的对照

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预期接受的治疗和实际接受的治疗之间存在的差异

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