INTERVENTIONS — SURGICAL

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Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1550 BCE)
Case 25. Instruction for a dislocation of his mandible. (Original in the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine. Facsimile in Breasted JH (1930)). Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, IX 2-6. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

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Paré A (1575)
1575 Les oeuvres de M. Ambroise Paré conseiller, et premier chirurgien du Roy avec les figures & portraicts tant de l'Anatomie que des instruments de Chirurgie, & de plusieurs Monstres. [The works of M. Ambroise Paré, advisor, and first surgeon to the King, with figures and portraits concerning anatomy as well as surgical instruments, and several monsters] Paris: Gabriel Buon.

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Hidalgo de Agüero, Bartolomé (1604)
Thesoro de la verdadera cirugía y vía particular contra la común. Sevilla: Francisco Pérez, 1604, pp. 32v.

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Monro A (1737)
Remarks on the amputations of the larger extremities. In: Medical essays and observations. Edinburgh: T & W Ruddimans, pp 321-347.

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Cheselden W (1740)
The anatomy of the human body. 5th edition. London: William Bowyer.

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Monro A (1752)
Remarks on the amputations of the larger extremities. In: Medical essays and observations. Edinburgh: Hamilton, Balfour, Neill.

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Faure JL (1759)
Recueil des pieces qui ont concouru pour le prix de L’Académie Royale de Chirurgie Vol 8 [Collection of reports that competed for the prize of the Royal Academy of Surgery]. Paris, P.Al Le Prieur.

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Vage (1759)
An extract of a letter from Mr Vage, dated at Senegal, Oct. 15, 1759. Medical Observations and Inquiries 1764;2. London: William Johnston, pp 269-272.

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Hillary W (1761)
An inquiry into the means of improving medical knowledge. London: Hitch and Hawes.

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Bilguer JU (1764)
A dissertation on the inutility of the amputation of limbs. London: Baldwin, Becket and de Hondt.

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White C (1770)
Cases in surgery. London: Johnson., p vi, viii.

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Alanson E (1782)
Practical observations on amputation, and the after-treatment, 2nd edn. London: Joseph Johnson.

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Black W (1782)
An historical sketch of medicine and surgery from their origin to the present time. London: J Johnson.

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Hunter J (1794)
A treatise on the blood, inflammation and gun-shot wounds. London: G Nichol, p 531.

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Gordon A (1795)
A treatise on the epidemic puerperal fever of Aberdeen. In: Churchill F, ed (1849). Essays on the puerperal fever and other diseases selected from the writings of British authors previous to the close of the eighteenth century. London: Sydenham Society, p 445-500.

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Cooper A (1801)
Farther observations on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the ear; with an account of the operation for the removal of a particular species of deafness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Part 1:435-451.

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Rollo J (1801)
A short account of the Royal Artillery Hospital at Woolwich. London: Mawman.

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Percival T (1803)
Medical ethics or, a code of institutes and precepts adapted to the professional conduct of physicians and surgeons. Manchester: S Russell for J Johnson.

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Guthrie GJ (1815)
A treatise on gun-shot wounds. London: Burgess and Hill.

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Hutchinson AC (1817)
Some further observations on the subject of the proper period for amputating in gun-shot wounds. London: Callow, p16.

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Marcet A (1819)
An essay on the chemical history and medical treatment of calculous disorders. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown.

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Prout WM (1821)
An inquiry into the nature and treatment of gravel, calculus and other diseases connected with a deranged operation of the urinary organs. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy.

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Richerand A (1825)
Histoire des progrès récens de la chirurgie [History of recent progress in surgery]. Paris: Béchet le Jeune, p 27.

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Yelloly J (1829)
Remarks on the tendency to calculous diseases with observations on the nature of urinary concretions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 119: 55-81.

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Poisson, Dulong, Larrey et Double (1835)
Recherches de statistique sur l’affection calculeuse, par M. le docteur Civiale. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie de Sciences [Statistical research on (urinary) stone, by M. Dr Civiale]. Paris: Bachelier, 167-177.

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Alcock R (1838)
Notes on the medical history and statistics of the British Legion in Spain; comprising the results of gun-shot wounds, in relation to important questions in surgery. London: Churchill, p 8-9, 27, 47, 54, 58-59.

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Alcock R (1840)
Observations on injuries of joints and their treatment. Medico - chirurgical Transactions 23: 243-322.

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Alcock R (1840-41a)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 1 of 20). Lancet 1:105-111 and passim up to 2:849—858.

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Alcock R (1840-41b)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 2 of 20). Lancet 1:217-220 and passim up to 2:849—858.

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Simpson JY (1847)
Account of a new anesthetic agent. Edinburgh.

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Semmelweis I (1861)
Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. [The etiology, concept, and prophylaxis of childbed fever]. Budapest and Vienna; Hartleben.

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Lister J (1870)
Effects of the antiseptic system of treatment upon the salubrity of a surgical hospital. Lancet 1:4-6 and 40-42.

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Wanscher O (1877)
Om Diphteritis og Croup - særligt med hensyn til Tracheostomien ved samme. [On diphtheria and croup - especially regarding tracheostomy in this condition]. Disputats [Thesis]. Jacob Lund: Kjøbenhavn, p 67-68.

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Keith T (1878)
Results of ovariotomy before and after antiseptics. BMJ 2;590-593. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.929.590.

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Hill B (1879)
Clinical lectures on stricture of the urethra. BMJ 2:883-886.

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Kocher T (1883)
Ueber Kropfexstirpation und ihre Folgen [On goitre removal, and its consequences]. Archiv für Klinische Chirurgie 29:254-337.

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Reverdin J-L, Reverdin A (1883)
Note sur vingt-deux opérations de goitre, avec 3 pl. photographiques [Note on twenty two operations on goitre. Continuation and conclusion]. Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande 3:169-198, 233-278, 309-364.

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Webster Fox L (1894)
Immediate capsulotomy following the removal of cataract. JAMA 22:837-39.

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Langton J (1899)
A discussion on the treatment of hernia in children. BMJ 2:470-472.

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De Quervain JF (1913)
Die Behandlung der akute Appendicitis auf Grund einer schweizerischen Sammelstatistik [The treatment of acute appendicitis on the basis of aggregated Swiss hospital statistics]. Correspondenzblatt für Schweizer Aerzte 43:1609-1624.

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Codman EA (1916)
A study in hospital efficiency. Boston: privately printed.

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Johnston RA, Siddall RS (1922)
Is the usual method of preparing patients for delivery beneficial or necessary? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 4:645-650.

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Kopeloff N, Kirby GH (1923)
Focal infection and mental disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 3:149-197.

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De Quervain JF (1930)
Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse der schweizerischen Sammelstatistik über Brustkrebs von 1911-1915. [Summary of the results of the aggregated Swiss hospital statistics on breast cancer from 1911-1915]. Bern-Berlin: Huber.

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Rosenthal DB (1936)
The incidence of pleural effusion in artificial pneumothorax. BMJ 1:95-99.

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Hill AB (1937)
Artificial pneumothorax on statistical trial. Lancet 229: 535-536.

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Lanman TH, Heyl HL (1939)
Empyema in Children. New England Journal of Medicine 221:1003-1009.

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Blalock A, Taussig HB (1945)
The surgical treatment of malformations of the heart: In which there is pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia. JAMA 128:189-202.

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Furber Murphy A (1947)
Treatment of acute mastitis. BMJ 1:271.

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Mitchell GAG (1947)
The value of penicillin in surgery. BMJ 1:41-45.

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Baker C, Brock RC, Campbell M (1950)
Valvulotomy for mitral stenosis; report of six successful cases. BMJ 1:1283–1293.

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Baker C, Brock RC, Campbell M, Wood P (1952)
Valvulotomy for mitral stenosis; a further report on 100 cases. BMJ 1:1043–1055.

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Livingston KE (1953)
Cingulate cortex isolation for the treatment of psychoses and psychoneuroses. Research Publications- Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases 31:374-8.

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Cobb LA, Thomas GI, Dillard DH, Merendino KA, Bruce RA (1959)
An Evaluation of Internal-Mammary-Artery Ligation by a Double-Blind Technic. New England Journal of Medicine 260:1115-1118.

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Dimond EG, Kittle CF, Crockett JE (1960)
Comparison of internal mammary artery ligation and sham operation for angina pectoris∗. The American Journal of Cardiology 5:483-486.

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Chalmers TC, Sebestyen CS, Lee S (1970)
Emergency surgical treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer: An analysis of the published data on 21,130 patients. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 82: 188-99.

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Stjernswärd J (1974)
Decreased survival related to irradiation postoperatively in early breast cancer. Lancet 304:1285-1286.

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Levitt SH, McHugh RB, Song CW (1976)
Radiotheraphy in the postoperative treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Part II. A re-examination of Stjernsward’s application of the Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. Evaluation of the effect of the radiation on immune response and suggestions for postoperative radiotherapy. Cancer 39:933-940.

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Shaikh W, Vayda E, Freeman W (1976)
A systematic review of the literature on the studies of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Pediatrics 57:401-407.

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Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F (1977)
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Chodak GW, Plaut ME (1977)
Use of systemic antibiotics for prophylaxis in surgery. A critical review. Archives of Surgery 112:326-334.

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Christensen E, Juhl E, Tygstrup N (1977)
Treatment of duodenal ulcer. Randomized clinical trials of a decade (1964 to 1974). Gastroenterology 73:1170-1178.

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Cochran WG, Diaconis P, Donner AP, Hoaglin DC, O’Connor NE, Peterson OL, Rosenoer VM (1977)
Experiments in surgical treatments of duodenal ulcer. In: Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F, eds. Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 176-197.

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Baum ML, Anish DS, Chalmers TC, Sacks HS, Smith H, Fagerstrom RM (1981)
A survey of clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in colon surgery: Evidence against further use of no-treatment controls. New England Journal of Medicine 305:795-799.

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Thomsen J, Bretlau P, Tos M, Johnsen NJ (1981)
Ménière's disease: endolymphatic sac decompression compared with sham (placebo) decompression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 374:820-30.

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Blackburn BA, Smith H, Chalmers TC (1982)
The inadequate evidence for short hospital stay after hernia or varicose vein stripping surgery. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine (NY) 49:383-390.

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MacLeod IA, Mills PR, MacKenzie JF, Joffe SN, Russell RI, Carter DC (1983)
Neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet laser photocoagulation for major haemorrhage from peptic ulcers and single vessels: a single blind controlled study. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 286:345.

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Fleischer D (1985)
Endoscopic Nd: YAG laser therapy for active esophageal variceal bleeding. A randomized controlled study. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 31:4-9.

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Freitas D, Donato A, Monteiro JG (1985)
Controlled trial of liquid monopolar electrocoagulation in bleeding peptic ulcers. American Journal of Gastroenterology 80:853-7.

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Himel HN, Liberati A, Gelber RD, Chalmers TC (1986)
Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: A pooled estimate based on results from published randomized control trials. JAMA 256:1148-1159.

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Lindor KD, Hughes RW, Ilstrup DM, Jensen (1987)
Intragastric balloons in comparison with standard therapy for obesity - a randomized, double-blind trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 62:992–6.

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Chalmers I, ed (1988)
The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Meshkinpour H, Hsu D, Farivar S (1988)
Effect of gastric bubble as a weight reduction device: a controlled, crossover study. Gastroenterology 95:589–92.

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Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (1989)
Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1990)
Treatment of early breast cancer. Vol 1. Worldwide evidence, 1985-1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Mathus-Vliegen EM, Tytgat GN, Veldhuyzen-Offermans EA (1990)
Intragastric balloon in the treatment of super-morbid obesity. Double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover evaluation of 500-milliliter balloon. Gastroenterology 99:362-9.

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Sinclair JC, Bracken MB (1992)
Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Ike RW, Arnold WJ, Rothschild EW, Shaw HL, and the Tidal Irrigation Cooperating Group. (1992)
Tidal irrigation versus conservative medical management in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized study. Journal of Rheumatology 19:772-9.

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Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (1994)
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Oxford: Update Software

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Veterans Affairs Cooperative Variceal Sclerotherapy Group (1994)
Sclerotherapy for male alcoholic cirrhotic patients who have bled from esophageal varices: results of a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Hepatology 20:618-25.

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Hartigan P (1994)
Sclerotherapy for male alcoholic cirrhotic patients who have bled from esophageal varices: Results of a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Variceal Sclerotherapy Group. Hepatology 20:618–625.

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Sutton CJ, Ewen SP, Whitelaw N, Haines P (1994)
Prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of laser laparoscopy in the treatment of pelvic pain associated with minimal, mild, and moderate endometriosis. Fertil Steril 62:696–700.

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Sutton CJ, Pooley AS, Ewen SP, Haines P (1997)
Follow-up report on a randomized controlled trial of laser laparoscopy in the treatment of pelvic pain associated with minimal to moderate endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility 68:1070-4.

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Freed CR, Greene PE, Breeze RE, Tsai WY, DuMouchel W, Kao R, Dillon S, Winfield H, Culver S, Trojanowski JQ, Eidelberg D, Fahn S (2001)
Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine 344:710–719.

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Alsbirk PH (2004)
Strategy for decentralized prevention of angle closure glaucoma in Greenland. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2004;63 Suppl 2;315-319.

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Glasziou P, Chalmers I, Rawlins M, McCulloch P (2007)
When are randomised trials unnecessary? Picking signal from noise. BMJ 334: 349-351.

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Djulbegovic B, Kumar A, Soares HP, Hozo I, Bepler G, Clarke M, Bennett CL (2008)
Treatment success in cancer: new cancer treatment successes identified in phase 3 randomized controlled trials conducted by the national cancer institute-sponsored cooperative oncology groups, 1955 to 2006. Archives of Internal Medicine. 168:632-42.

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Wartolowska K, Judge A, Hopewell S, Collins GS, Dean BJF, Rombach I, Brindley D, Savulescu J, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2014)
Use of placebo controls in the evaluation of surgery: systematic review. BMJ 348:g3253. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3253.

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Wartolowska KA, Collins GS, Hopewell S, Judge A, Dean BJF, Rombach I, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2016)
Feasibility of surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm: a systematic review. BMJ Open 6: p.e010194.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson 1782: responsibility in surgical innovation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson (1747-1823). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Donaldson IML (2004).
Ambroise Paré’s accounts of new methods for treating gunshot wounds and burns. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Burch D (2009).
Astley Paston Cooper (1768–1841), anatomist, radical, and surgeon. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter: learning from natural experiments, ‘placebos’, and the state of mind of a patient in the 18th century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moore W (2009).
John Hunter (1728-1793). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Wessely S (2009).
Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: the need to test untested theories. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2010).
Johann Friedrich de Quervain (1868-1940). Swiss surgical innovator. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Fox DM (2011).
Systematic reviews and health policy: the influence of a project on perinatal care since 1988. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Solis C (2011).
Bartolomé Hidalgo de Agüero’s 16th century, evidence-based challenge to the orthodox management of wounds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2013).
William Cheselden’s 1740 presentation of data on age-specific mortality after lithotomy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bryder L (2014).
The Medical Research Council and treatments for tuberculosis before streptomycin. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2014).
Statistics and the British controversy about the effects of Joseph Lister’s system of antisepsis for surgery, 1867-1890. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2015).
Why did I become a clinician-trialist? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Burton MJ (2015).
Astley Cooper’s dramatically effective treatment of deafness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Treasure T (2016).
Documenting the dramatic effects of operative treatment of mitral stenosis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Treasure T (2017).
Turning blue babies pink: Alfred Blalock’s shunt for Fallot’s Tetralogy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2020)
Probabilistic thinking and the evaluation of therapies, 1700-1900. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Chalmers I, Matthews R, Glasziou P, Boutron I, Armitage P (2023).
Analysis of clinical trial by Treatment Allocated or by Treatment Received? Applying ‘the intention-to-treat principle’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Glasziou P, Matthews R, Boutron I, Chalmers I, Armitage P (2023)
The differences and overlaps between ‘explanatory’ and ‘pragmatic’ controlled trials: a historical perspective. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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