James Lind Library
Illustrating the development of fair tests of treatments in health care
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INTERVENTIONS — SURGICAL
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Wartolowska KA, Collins GS, Hopewell S, Judge A, Dean BJF, Rombach I, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2016)
Feasibility of surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm: a systematic review. BMJ Open 6: p.e010194.
Wartolowska K, Judge A, Hopewell S, Collins GS, Dean BJF, Rombach I, Brindley D, Savulescu J, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2014)
Use of placebo controls in the evaluation of surgery: systematic review. BMJ 348:g3253. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3253.
Djulbegovic B, Kumar A, Soares HP, Hozo I, Bepler G, Clarke M, Bennett CL (2008)
Treatment success in cancer: new cancer treatment successes identified in phase 3 randomized controlled trials conducted by the national cancer institute-sponsored cooperative oncology groups, 1955 to 2006. Archives of Internal Medicine. 168:632-42.
Glasziou P, Chalmers I, Rawlins M, McCulloch P (2007)
When are randomised trials unnecessary? Picking signal from noise. BMJ 334: 349-351.
Alsbirk PH (2004)
Strategy for decentralized prevention of angle closure glaucoma in Greenland. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2004;63 Suppl 2;315-319.
Freed CR, Greene PE, Breeze RE, Tsai WY, DuMouchel W, Kao R, Dillon S, Winfield H, Culver S, Trojanowski JQ, Eidelberg D, Fahn S (2001)
Transplantation of embryonic dopamine neurons for severe Parkinson’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine 344:710–719.
Sutton CJ, Pooley AS, Ewen SP, Haines P (1997)
Follow-up report on a randomized controlled trial of laser laparoscopy in the treatment of pelvic pain associated with minimal to moderate endometriosis. Fertility and Sterility 68:1070-4.
Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (1994)
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Oxford: Update Software
Veterans Affairs Cooperative Variceal Sclerotherapy Group (1994)
Sclerotherapy for male alcoholic cirrhotic patients who have bled from esophageal varices: results of a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Hepatology 20:618-25.
Hartigan P (1994)
Sclerotherapy for male alcoholic cirrhotic patients who have bled from esophageal varices: Results of a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Variceal Sclerotherapy Group. Hepatology 20:618–625.
Sutton CJ, Ewen SP, Whitelaw N, Haines P (1994)
Prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of laser laparoscopy in the treatment of pelvic pain associated with minimal, mild, and moderate endometriosis. Fertil Steril 62:696–700.
Sinclair JC, Bracken MB (1992)
Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ike RW, Arnold WJ, Rothschild EW, Shaw HL, and the Tidal Irrigation Cooperating Group. (1992)
Tidal irrigation versus conservative medical management in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized study. Journal of Rheumatology 19:772-9.
Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1990)
Treatment of early breast cancer. Vol 1. Worldwide evidence, 1985-1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mathus-Vliegen EM, Tytgat GN, Veldhuyzen-Offermans EA (1990)
Intragastric balloon in the treatment of super-morbid obesity. Double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover evaluation of 500-milliliter balloon. Gastroenterology 99:362-9.
Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (1989)
Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chalmers I, ed (1988)
The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meshkinpour H, Hsu D, Farivar S (1988)
Effect of gastric bubble as a weight reduction device: a controlled, crossover study. Gastroenterology 95:589–92.
Lindor KD, Hughes RW, Ilstrup DM, Jensen (1987)
Intragastric balloons in comparison with standard therapy for obesity - a randomized, double-blind trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 62:992–6.
Himel HN, Liberati A, Gelber RD, Chalmers TC (1986)
Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: A pooled estimate based on results from published randomized control trials. JAMA 256:1148-1159.
Fleischer D (1985)
Endoscopic Nd: YAG laser therapy for active esophageal variceal bleeding. A randomized controlled study. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 31:4-9.
Freitas D, Donato A, Monteiro JG (1985)
Controlled trial of liquid monopolar electrocoagulation in bleeding peptic ulcers. American Journal of Gastroenterology 80:853-7.
MacLeod IA, Mills PR, MacKenzie JF, Joffe SN, Russell RI, Carter DC (1983)
Neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet laser photocoagulation for major haemorrhage from peptic ulcers and single vessels: a single blind controlled study. BMJ (Clin Res Ed) 286:345.
Blackburn BA, Smith H, Chalmers TC (1982)
The inadequate evidence for short hospital stay after hernia or varicose vein stripping surgery. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine (NY) 49:383-390.
Baum ML, Anish DS, Chalmers TC, Sacks HS, Smith H, Fagerstrom RM (1981)
A survey of clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in colon surgery: Evidence against further use of no-treatment controls. New England Journal of Medicine 305:795-799.
Thomsen J, Bretlau P, Tos M, Johnsen NJ (1981)
Ménière's disease: endolymphatic sac decompression compared with sham (placebo) decompression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 374:820-30.
Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F (1977)
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chodak GW, Plaut ME (1977)
Use of systemic antibiotics for prophylaxis in surgery. A critical review. Archives of Surgery 112:326-334.
Christensen E, Juhl E, Tygstrup N (1977)
Treatment of duodenal ulcer. Randomized clinical trials of a decade (1964 to 1974). Gastroenterology 73:1170-1178.
Cochran WG, Diaconis P, Donner AP, Hoaglin DC, O’Connor NE, Peterson OL, Rosenoer VM (1977)
Experiments in surgical treatments of duodenal ulcer. In: Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F, eds. Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 176-197.
Levitt SH, McHugh RB, Song CW (1976)
Radiotheraphy in the postoperative treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Part II. A re-examination of Stjernsward’s application of the Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. Evaluation of the effect of the radiation on immune response and suggestions for postoperative radiotherapy. Cancer 39:933-940.
Shaikh W, Vayda E, Freeman W (1976)
A systematic review of the literature on the studies of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Pediatrics 57:401-407.
Stjernswärd J (1974)
Decreased survival related to irradiation postoperatively in early breast cancer. Lancet 304:1285-1286.
Chalmers TC, Sebestyen CS, Lee S (1970)
Emergency surgical treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer: An analysis of the published data on 21,130 patients. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 82: 188-99.
Dimond EG, Kittle CF, Crockett JE (1960)
Comparison of internal mammary artery ligation and sham operation for angina pectoris∗. The American Journal of Cardiology 5:483-486.
Cobb LA, Thomas GI, Dillard DH, Merendino KA, Bruce RA (1959)
An Evaluation of Internal-Mammary-Artery Ligation by a Double-Blind Technic. New England Journal of Medicine 260:1115-1118.
Livingston KE (1953)
Cingulate cortex isolation for the treatment of psychoses and psychoneuroses. Research Publications- Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases 31:374-8.
Baker C, Brock RC, Campbell M, Wood P (1952)
Valvulotomy for mitral stenosis; a further report on 100 cases. BMJ 1:1043–1055.
Baker C, Brock RC, Campbell M (1950)
Valvulotomy for mitral stenosis; report of six successful cases. BMJ 1:1283–1293.
Furber Murphy A (1947)
Treatment of acute mastitis. BMJ 1:271.
Mitchell GAG (1947)
The value of penicillin in surgery. BMJ 1:41-45.
Blalock A, Taussig HB (1945)
The surgical treatment of malformations of the heart: In which there is pulmonary stenosis or pulmonary atresia. JAMA 128:189-202.
Lanman TH, Heyl HL (1939)
Empyema in Children. New England Journal of Medicine 221:1003-1009.
Hill AB (1937)
Artificial pneumothorax on statistical trial. Lancet 229: 535-536.
Rosenthal DB (1936)
The incidence of pleural effusion in artificial pneumothorax. BMJ 1:95-99.
De Quervain JF (1930)
Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse der schweizerischen Sammelstatistik über Brustkrebs von 1911-1915. [Summary of the results of the aggregated Swiss hospital statistics on breast cancer from 1911-1915]. Bern-Berlin: Huber.
Kopeloff N, Kirby GH (1923)
Focal infection and mental disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 3:149-197.
Johnston RA, Siddall RS (1922)
Is the usual method of preparing patients for delivery beneficial or necessary? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 4:645-650.
Codman EA (1916)
A study in hospital efficiency. Boston: privately printed.
De Quervain JF (1913)
Die Behandlung der akute Appendicitis auf Grund einer schweizerischen Sammelstatistik [The treatment of acute appendicitis on the basis of aggregated Swiss hospital statistics]. Correspondenzblatt für Schweizer Aerzte 43:1609-1624.
Langton J (1899)
A discussion on the treatment of hernia in children. BMJ 2:470-472.
Webster Fox L (1894)
Immediate capsulotomy following the removal of cataract. JAMA 22:837-39.
Kocher T (1883)
Ueber Kropfexstirpation und ihre Folgen [On goitre removal, and its consequences]. Archiv für Klinische Chirurgie 29:254-337.
Reverdin J-L, Reverdin A (1883)
Note sur vingt-deux opérations de goitre, avec 3 pl. photographiques [Note on twenty two operations on goitre. Continuation and conclusion]. Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande 3:169-198, 233-278, 309-364.
Hill B (1879)
Clinical lectures on stricture of the urethra. BMJ 2:883-886.
Keith T (1878)
Results of ovariotomy before and after antiseptics. BMJ 2;590-593. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.929.590.
Wanscher O (1877)
Om Diphteritis og Croup - særligt med hensyn til Tracheostomien ved samme. [On diphtheria and croup - especially regarding tracheostomy in this condition]. Disputats [Thesis]. Jacob Lund: Kjøbenhavn, p 67-68.
Lister J (1870)
Effects of the antiseptic system of treatment upon the salubrity of a surgical hospital. Lancet 1:4-6 and 40-42.
Semmelweis I (1861)
Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. [The etiology, concept, and prophylaxis of childbed fever]. Budapest and Vienna; Hartleben.
Simpson JY (1847)
Account of a new anesthetic agent. Edinburgh.
Alcock R (1840-41b)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 2 of 20). Lancet 1:217-220 and passim up to 2:849—858.
Alcock R (1840-41a)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 1 of 20). Lancet 1:105-111 and passim up to 2:849—858.
Alcock R (1840)
Observations on injuries of joints and their treatment. Medico - chirurgical Transactions 23: 243-322.
Alcock R (1838)
Notes on the medical history and statistics of the British Legion in Spain; comprising the results of gun-shot wounds, in relation to important questions in surgery. London: Churchill, p 8-9, 27, 47, 54, 58-59.
Poisson, Dulong, Larrey et Double (1835)
Recherches de statistique sur l’affection calculeuse, par M. le docteur Civiale. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie de Sciences [Statistical research on (urinary) stone, by M. Dr Civiale]. Paris: Bachelier, 167-177.
Yelloly J (1829)
Remarks on the tendency to calculous diseases with observations on the nature of urinary concretions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 119: 55-81.
Richerand A (1825)
Histoire des progrès récens de la chirurgie [History of recent progress in surgery]. Paris: Béchet le Jeune, p 27.
Prout WM (1821)
An inquiry into the nature and treatment of gravel, calculus and other diseases connected with a deranged operation of the urinary organs. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy.
Marcet A (1819)
An essay on the chemical history and medical treatment of calculous disorders. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown.
Hutchinson AC (1817)
Some further observations on the subject of the proper period for amputating in gun-shot wounds. London: Callow, p16.
Guthrie GJ (1815)
A treatise on gun-shot wounds. London: Burgess and Hill.
Percival T (1803)
Medical ethics or, a code of institutes and precepts adapted to the professional conduct of physicians and surgeons. Manchester: S Russell for J Johnson.
Cooper A (1801)
Farther observations on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the ear; with an account of the operation for the removal of a particular species of deafness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Part 1:435-451.
Rollo J (1801)
A short account of the Royal Artillery Hospital at Woolwich. London: Mawman.
Gordon A (1795)
A treatise on the epidemic puerperal fever of Aberdeen. In: Churchill F, ed (1849). Essays on the puerperal fever and other diseases selected from the writings of British authors previous to the close of the eighteenth century. London: Sydenham Society, p 445-500.
Hunter J (1794)
A treatise on the blood, inflammation and gun-shot wounds. London: G Nichol, p 531.
Alanson E (1782)
Practical observations on amputation, and the after-treatment, 2nd edn. London: Joseph Johnson.
Black W (1782)
An historical sketch of medicine and surgery from their origin to the present time. London: J Johnson.
White C (1770)
Cases in surgery. London: Johnson., p vi, viii.
Bilguer JU (1764)
A dissertation on the inutility of the amputation of limbs. London: Baldwin, Becket and de Hondt.
Hillary W (1761)
An inquiry into the means of improving medical knowledge. London: Hitch and Hawes.
Faure JL (1759)
Recueil des pieces qui ont concouru pour le prix de L’Académie Royale de Chirurgie Vol 8 [Collection of reports that competed for the prize of the Royal Academy of Surgery]. Paris, P.Al Le Prieur.
An extract of a letter from Mr Vage, dated at Senegal, Oct. 15, 1759. Medical Observations and Inquiries 1764;2. London: William Johnston, pp 269-272.
Monro A (1752)
Remarks on the amputations of the larger extremities. In: Medical essays and observations. Edinburgh: Hamilton, Balfour, Neill.
Cheselden W (1740)
The anatomy of the human body. 5th edition. London: William Bowyer.
Monro A (1737)
Remarks on the amputations of the larger extremities. In: Medical essays and observations. Edinburgh: T & W Ruddimans, pp 321-347.
Hidalgo de Agüero, Bartolomé (1604)
Thesoro de la verdadera cirugía y vía particular contra la común. Sevilla: Francisco Pérez, 1604, pp. 32v.
Paré A (1575)
1575 Les oeuvres de M. Ambroise Paré conseiller, et premier chirurgien du Roy avec les figures & portraicts tant de l'Anatomie que des instruments de Chirurgie, & de plusieurs Monstres. [The works of M. Ambroise Paré, advisor, and first surgeon to the King, with figures and portraits concerning anatomy as well as surgical instruments, and several monsters] Paris: Gabriel Buon.
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (1550 BCE)
Case 25. Instruction for a dislocation of his mandible. (Original in the Rare Book Room, New York Academy of Medicine. Facsimile in Breasted JH (1930)). Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, IX 2-6. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Chalmers I, Matthews R, Glasziou P, Boutron I, Armitage P (2023).
Analysis of clinical trial by Treatment Allocated or by Treatment Received? Applying ‘the intention-to-treat principle’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Tröhler U (2020)
Probabilistic thinking and the evaluation of therapies, 1700-1900. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Treasure T (2017).
Turning blue babies pink: Alfred Blalock’s shunt for Fallot’s Tetralogy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Treasure T (2016).
Documenting the dramatic effects of operative treatment of mitral stenosis. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Sackett DL† (2015).
Why did I become a clinician-trialist? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Burton MJ (2015).
Astley Cooper’s dramatically effective treatment of deafness. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Tröhler U (2014).
Statistics and the British controversy about the effects of Joseph Lister’s system of antisepsis for surgery, 1867-1890. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Bryder L (2014).
The Medical Research Council and treatments for tuberculosis before streptomycin. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Tröhler U (2013).
William Cheselden’s 1740 presentation of data on age-specific mortality after lithotomy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Fox DM (2011).
Systematic reviews and health policy: the influence of a project on perinatal care since 1988. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Solis C (2011).
Bartolomé Hidalgo de Agüero’s 16th century, evidence-based challenge to the orthodox management of wounds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Tröhler U (2010).
Johann Friedrich de Quervain (1868-1940). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Burch D (2009).
Astley Paston Cooper (1768–1841), anatomist, radical, and surgeon. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Moore W (2009).
John Hunter: learning from natural experiments, ‘placebos’, and the state of mind of a patient in the 18th century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Moore W (2009).
John Hunter (1728-1793). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Wessely S (2009).
Surgery for the treatment of psychiatric illness: the need to test untested theories. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Donaldson IML (2004).
Ambroise Paré’s accounts of new methods for treating gunshot wounds and burns. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson 1782: responsibility in surgical innovation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Tröhler U (2003).
Edward Alanson (1747-1823). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
What is a fair test?
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, supported by the James Lind Initiative and the Presidential Fund of the Swiss National Science Foundation.