Biases in systematic reviews

Because single tests of treatments can be misleading, systematic reviews are used to identify, evaluate and summarize all the evidence relevant to addressing a particular question.


JLL Essay
2.8 Avoiding biased selection from the available evidence

Systematic reviews of all the relevant, reliable evidence

 

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Hippocrates (5th Century BCE)
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Haygarth J (1793)
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de Villalba J (1802)
Epidemiología Española. Madrid: D Fermin Villalpando.

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Rayleigh, The Lord (1885)
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Greenwood M (1924)
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De Quervain JF (1930)
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Greenwood M (1934)
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Daniels M, Hill AB (1952)
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Leitch I (1959)
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Kety S (1959)
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Wechsler H, Grosser GH, Greenblatt M (1965)
Research evaluating antidepressant medications on hospitalized mental patients: A survey of published reports during a five-year period. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 141(2):231-239.

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Grace ND, Muench H, Chalmers TC (1966)
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Smith A, Traganza E, Harrison G (1969)
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International Anticoagulant Review Group (1970)
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Feldman KA (1971)
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Light RJ, Smith PV (1971)
Accumulating evidence: Procedures for resolving contradictions among research studies. Harvard Educational Review 41:429-471.

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Stjernswärd J (1974)
Decreased survival related to irradiation postoperatively in early breast cancer. Lancet 304:1285-1286.

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Elwood PC, Cochrane AL, Burr ML, Sweetnam PM, Williams G, Welsby E, Hughes SJ, Renton R (1974)
A randomized controlled trial of acetyl salicylic acid in the secondary prevention of mortality from myocardial infarction. BMJ 1:426-440.

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Chalmers TC (1975)
Effects of ascorbic acid on the common cold. An evaluation of the evidence. Amer J Med 58:532-6.

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Davis JM (1975)
Overview: Maintenance therapy in Psychiatry: I. Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 132:1237-1244.

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Glass GV (1976)
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Conn HO, Blitzer BL (1976)
Nonassociation of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic ulcer. New England Journal of Medicine 294(9):473-9.

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Levitt SH, McHugh RB, Song CW (1976)
Radiotheraphy in the postoperative treatment of operable cancer of the breast. Part II. A re-examination of Stjernsward’s application of the Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. Evaluation of the effect of the radiation on immune response and suggestions for postoperative radiotherapy. Cancer 39:933-940.

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Davis JM (1976)
Overview: Maintenance therapy in psychiatry:2. Affective disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry 133:1-13.

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Chalmers TC, Matta RJ, Smith H, Kunzler A-M (1977)
Evidence favoring the use of anticoagulants in the hospital phase of acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine 297:1091-96.

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Smith ML, Glass GV (1977)
Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist 32:752-760.

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Cochran WG, Diaconis P, Donner AP, Hoaglin DC, O’Connor NE, Peterson OL, Rosenoer VM (1977)
Experiments in surgical treatments of duodenal ulcer. In: Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F, eds. Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 176-197.

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Chodak GW, Plaut ME (1977)
Use of systemic antibiotics for prophylaxis in surgery. A critical review. Archives of Surgery 112:326-334.

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Christensen E, Juhl E, Tygstrup N (1977)
Treatment of duodenal ulcer. Randomized clinical trials of a decade (1964 to 1974). Gastroenterology 73:1170-1178.

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Hemminki E, Starfield B (1978)
Routine administration of iron and vitamins during pregnancy: review of controlled clinical trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85:404-410.

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Hemminki E, Starfield B (1978)
Prevention and treatment of premature labour by drugs: review of controlled clinical trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85:411-417.

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Jackson GB (1978)
Methods for reviewing and integrating research in the social sciences. Report prepared for the National Science Foundation, Washington DC, Division of Science Information, PB-283747.

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The Pooling Project Research Group (1978)
Relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, smoking habit, relative weight and ECG abnormalities to incidence of major coronary events: Final report of the Pooling Project. Journal of Chronic Diseases 31:210-306.

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Conn HO (1978)
Steroid treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. The yeas and nays [editorial]. Gastroenterology 74(2 Pt 1):319-322.

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Winship DH (1978)
Cimetidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer: Review and commentary. Gastroenterology 74:402-406.

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Chalmers I (1979)
Randomized controlled trials of fetal monitoring 1973-1977. In: Thalhammer O, Baumgarten K, Pollak A, eds. Perinatal Medicine. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme:260-265.

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Jackson GB (1980)
Methods for integrative reviews. Review of Educational Research 50:438-460.

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Editorial (1980)
Aspirin after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1:1172-3.

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Cooper HM, Rosenthal R (1980)
A comparison of statistical and traditional procedures for summarizing research. Psychological Bulletin 87:442-449.

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Andrews G, Guitar B, Howie P (1980)
Meta-analysis of the effects of stuttering treatment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 45:287-307.

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Glass GV, McGaw B, Smith ML (1981)
Meta-analysis in social research. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

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Kass EH (1981)
Reviewing reviews. In: Warren KS, ed. Coping with the biomedical literature. New York: Praeger, pp 79-91.

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Baum ML, Anish DS, Chalmers TC, Sacks HS, Smith H, Fagerstrom RM (1981)
A survey of clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in colon surgery: Evidence against further use of no-treatment controls. New England Journal of Medicine 305:795-799.

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Coffman TL (1981)
Relocation and survival of institutionalized aged: A re-examination of the evidence. The Gerontologist 21(5):483-500.

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Andrews G, Harvey R (1981)
Does psychotherapy benefit neurotic patients? A reanalysis of the Smith, Glass, and Miller data. Archives of General Psychiatry 38: 1203-1208.

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DeSilva RA, Hennekens CH, Lown B, Cassells W (1981)
Lignocaine prophylaxis in acute myocardial infarction: An evaluation of randomised trials. Lancet 17:855-858.

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Polk BF (1981)
Antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent mixed bacterial infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 8(suppl D):115-129.

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Loeliger EA (1981)
Oral anticoagulation in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. Acta Medica Scandinavica 651(suppl):305-315.

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Hunter JE, Schmidt FL, Jackson GB (1982)
Meta-analysis: cumulating research findings across studies. Beverly Hills, Ca: Sage Publications.

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Hampton JR (1982)
Should every survivor of a heart attack be given a beta-blocker? Part I Evidence from clinical trials. BMJ 285:33-36.

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Stampfer MJ, Goldhaber SZ, Yusuf S, Peto R, Hennekens CH (1982)
Effect of intravenous streptokinase on acute myocardial infarction: pooled results from randomized trials. New England Journal of Medicine 307:1180-1182.

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Andrews G, MacMahon SW, Austin A, Byrne DG (1982)
Hypertension: comparison of drug and non-drug treatments. BMJ 284:1523-1526.

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Baber NS, Lewis JA (1982)
Confidence in results of beta-blocker postinfarction trials. BMJ 284: 1749-1750.

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Landman JT, Dawes RM (1982)
Psychotherapy outcome. Smith and Glass’ conclusions stand up under scrutiny. American Psychologist 37(5):504-516.

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Lewis JA (1982)
Beta-blockade after myocardial infarction- a statistical view. Br J Clin Pharmac 14:15S-21S.

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Mazzuca SA (1982)
Does patient education in chronic disease have therapeutic value? Journal of Chronic Diseases 35:521-529.

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Mumford E, Schlesinger HJ, Glass GV (1982)
The effects of psychological intervention on recovery from surgery and heart attacks: An analysis of the literature. American Journal of Public Health 72(2): 141-151.

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Shapiro DA, Shapiro D (1982)
Meta-analysis of comparative therapy outcome studies: A replication and refinement. Psychological Bulletin 92(3):581-604.

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Blackburn BA, Smith H, Chalmers TC (1982)
The inadequate evidence for short hospital stay after hernia or varicose vein stripping surgery. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine (NY) 49:383-390.

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Cone LA (1982)
A survey of prospective, controlled clinical trials of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and netilmicin. Clinical Therapeutics 5:155-1621.

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Kavale K (1982)
The efficacy of stimulant drug treatment for hyperactivity: A metaanalysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities 15:280-289.

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Smith ML (1982)
What research says about the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 33:457-461.

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Editorial (1982)
Long-term and short-term beta-blockade after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1:1159-1161.

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Light RJ (1983)
Evaluation Studies Review Annual Vol 8. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage.

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Altman DG (1983)
Evaluating a series of clinical trials of the same treatment. Paper based on a presentation made at a meeting of the International Epidemiological Association, Edinburgh, August 1981.

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Ottenbacher KJ, Petersen P (1983)
Quantitative reviewing of medical literature. An approach to synthesizing research results in clinical pediatrics. Clinical Pediatrics 23(8):423-427.

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Ottenbacher KJ, Petersen P (1983)
The efficacy of vestibular stimulation as a form of specific sensory enrichment. Quantitative review of literature. Clinical Pediatrics 23(8):428-433.

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Baber NS, Lewis JA (1983)
Beta-adrenoreceptor blockade and myocardial infarction: When should treatment start and for how long should it continue? Circulation 67(suppl I):I-71-I-75.

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Foon KA, Smalley RV, Riggs CW, Gale RP (1983)
The role of immunotherapy in acute myelogenous leukemia. Arch Intern Med 143: 1726-1731

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Chalmers TC, Celano P, Sacks HS, Smith H (1983)
Bias in treatment assignment in controlled clinical trials. New England Journal of Medicine 309: 1358-1361.

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Devine EC, Cook TD (1983)
A meta-analytic analysis of effects of psychoeducational interventions on length of postsurgical hospital stay. Nursing Research Practice 32(5):267-74.

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Leizorovicz A, Boissel JP (1983)
Oral anticoagulant in patients surviving myocardial infarction. A new approach to old data. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 24:333-336.

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Messer J, Reitman D, Sacks HS, Smith H, Chalmers TC (1983)
Association of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic-ulcer disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 309(1):21-24.

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Shapiro DA, Shapiro D (1983)
Comparative therapy outcome research: Methodological implications of meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51(1):42-53.

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Steinbrueck SM, Maxwell SE, Howard GS (1983)
A meta-analysis of psychotherapy and drug therapy in the treatment of unipolar depression with adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51(6):856-863.

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Thurber S, Eugene Walker C (1983)
Medication and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. The Journal of General Psychology 108:79-86.

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Tran ZU, Weltman A, Glass GV, Mood DP (1983)
The effects of exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins: A meta-analysis of studies. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 15(5):393-402.

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Canner PL (1983)
Aspirin in coronary heart disease. Comparison of six clinical trials. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 19:413-423.

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Huitfeldt B, Montgomery SA (1983)
Comparison between zimeldine and amitriptyline of efficacy and adverse symptoms~a combined analysis of four British clinical trials in depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand (suppl) 308:55-69.

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Kavale KA, Forness SR (1983)
Hyperactivity and diet treatment: A meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. I Learn Disabil 16:324-30.

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Moskowitz G, Chalmers TC, Sacks HS, Fagerstrom RM, Smith H Jr (1983)
Deficiencies of clinical trials of alcohol withdrawal. Alcoholism 7:42-46.

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Yusuf S, Sleight P (1983)
Limitation of myocardial infarct size. Present status. Drugs 25:441-450.

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Furberg CD, Bell RL (1983)
Effect of beta-blocker therapy on recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction. Circulation 67 (suppl I): I-83-I-85.

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Light RJ, Pillemer DB (1984)
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Yeaton WH, Wortman PM (1984)
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Bassan MM, Shalev O, Eliakim A (1984)
Improved prognosis during long-term treatment with beta-blockers after myocardial infarction: Analysis of randomized trials and pooling of results. Heart Lung 13:164-168.

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King JF, Keirse MJNC, Grant A, Chalmers I (1985)
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Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P (1985)
Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Progress in Cardiovascular Disease 27:335-371.

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Sacks HS, Chalmers TC, Berk AA, Reitman D (1985)
Should mild hypertension be treated? An attempted meta-analysis of the clinical trials. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 52:265-270.

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Einarson TR, McGhan WF, Bootman JL, Sabers DL (1985)
Meta-analysis: quantitative integration of independent research results. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 42:1957-64.

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Louis TA, Fineberg HV, Mosteller F (1985)
Findings for Public Health from meta-analyses. Annual Review of Public Health 6:1-20.

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Curlette WL, Silva Cannella K (1985)
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Goldschmidt PG (1986)
Information synthesis: a practical guide. HSR: Health Services Research 21:215-236.

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Himel HN, Liberati A, Gelber RD, Chalmers TC (1986)
Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: A pooled estimate based on results from published randomized control trials. JAMA 256:1148-1159.

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Chalmers TC, Berrier J, Sacks HS, Levin H, Reitman D, Nagalingam R (1987)
Meta-analysis of clinical trials as a scientific discipline. II. Replicate variability and comparison of studies that agree and disagree. Stat Med 6:733-44.

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Jenicek M (1987)
Méta-analyse en médecine. Évaluation et synthèse de l’information clinique et épidémiologique. [Meta-analysis in medicine: evaluation and synthesis of clinical and epidemiological information] St.Hyacinthe and Paris: EDISEM and Maloine Éditeurs.

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Mulrow CD (1987)
The medical review article: state of the science. Annals of Internal Medicine 106:485-488.

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Sacks HS, Berrier J, Reitman D, Ancona-Berk VA, Chalmers TC (1987)
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L'Abbé KA, Detsky AS, O'Rourke K (1987)
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Peto R (1987)
Why do we need systematic overviews of randomized trials? Statistics in Medicine 6:233-240.

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Yusuf S, Simon R, Ellenberg SS (1987)
Proceedings of the workshop on methodologic issues in overviews of randomized clinical trials, May 1986. Statistics in Medicine 6:217-409.

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Thacker SB (1988)
Meta-analysis: a quantitative approach for research integration. JAMA 259:1685-1689.

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Mulrow CD, Thacker SB, Pugh J (1988)
A proposal for more informative abstracts of review articles. Annals of Internal Medicine 108:613-615.

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Oxman AD, Guyatt GH (1988)
Guidelines for reading literature reviews. Canadian Medical Association Journal 138:697-703.

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Prendiville W, Elbourne E, Chalmers I (1988)
The effects of routine oxytocic administration in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 95:3-16.

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King JF, Grant A, Keirse MJNC, Chalmers I (1988)
Betamimetics in preterm labour: an overview of the randomized controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetetrics and Gynaecology 95:211-222.

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Elbourne D, Prendiville W, Chalmers I (1988)
Choice of oxytocic preparation for routine use in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 95:17-30.

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MacMahon S, Collins R, Peto R, Koster RW, Yusuf S (1988)
Effects of prophylactic lidocaine in suspected acute myocardial infarction. An overview of results from the randomized, controlled trials. JAMA 260:1910-6.

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Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration (1988)
Secondary prevention of vascular disease by prolonged anti-platelet treatment. BMJ 296:320-331.

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Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1988)
Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer. An overview of 61 randomized trials among 28,896 women. New England Journal of Medicine 319:1681-92.

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Chalmers TC (1988)
Data analysis for clinical medicine: the quantitative approach to patient care in gastroenterology. Rome: International University Press.

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Chalmers I, ed (1988)
The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Jenicek M (1989)
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Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (1989)
Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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O’Rourke K, Detsky AS (1989)
Meta-analysis in medical research: strong encouragement for higher quality in individual research efforts. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42:1021-24.

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Hine LK, Laird N, Hewitt P, Chalmers TC (1989)
Meta-analytic evidence against prophylactic use of lidocaine in acute myocardial infarction. Archives of Internal Medicine 149:2694-8.

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Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (1990)
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Crowley P, Chalmers I, Keirse MJNC (1990)
The effects of corticosteroid administration before preterm delivery: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 97:11–25.

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Antman EM, Lau J, Kupelnick B, Mosteller F, Chalmers TC (1992)
A comparison of results of meta-analyses of randomized control trials and recommendations of clinical experts. JAMA 268:240-248.

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Sinclair JC, Bracken MB (1992)
Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Oxman AD, Guyatt GH (1993)
The science of reviewing research. In: Warren KS, Mosteller F, eds. Doing more good than harm: the evaluation of health care interventions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;703:156-163.

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Pettiti DB (1994)
Meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis: Methods for quantitative synthesis in medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (1994)
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Oxford: Update Software

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Chalmers I, Altman DG (1995)
Systematic Reviews. London: BMJ Publications.

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Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) Collaboration (1995)
Protocol for a prospective collaborative overview of all current and planned randomized trials of cholesterol treatment regimens. American Journal of Cardiology 75:1130-1134.

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Clarke M, Chalmers I (1998)
Discussion sections in reports of controlled trials published in general medical journals: islands in search of continents? JAMA 280: 280-2.

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Harden A, Weston R, Oakley A (1999)
A review of the effectiveness and appropriateness of peer-delivered health promotion interventions for young people. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London, November.

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Egger M, Davey Smith G, Altman DG (2001)
Systematic reviews in health care. London: BMJ Books.

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Kunz R, Vist G, Oxman AD (2002)
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Thomas J, Harden A, Oakley A, Oliver S, Sutcliffe K, Rees R, Brunton G, Kavanagh J (2004)
Integrating qualitative research with trials in systematic reviews. BMJ 328:1010-1012.

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Sena ES, Briscoe CL, Howells DW, Donnan GA, Sandercock PA, Macleod MR (2010)
Factors affecting the apparent efficacy and safety of tissue plasminogen activator in thrombotic occlusion models of stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 30:1905-13.

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Savović J, Jones HE, Altman DG, Harris RJ, Jüni P, Pildal J, Als-Nielsen B, Balk EM, Gluud C, Gluud LL, Ioannidis JPA, Schulz KF, Beynon R, Welton NJ, Wood L, Moher D, Deeks JJ, Sterne JAC (2012)
Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized controlled trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 157:429-438.

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Bafeta A, Dechartres A, Trinquart L, Yavchitz A, Boutron I, Ravaud P (2012)
Impact of single centre status on estimates of intervention effects in trials with continuous outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 344:e813.

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Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Hama R, Thompson MJ, Spencer EA, Onakpoya I, Mahtani KR, Nunan D, Howick J, Heneghan CJ (2014)
Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD008965. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD008965.pub4.

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4.2 Preparing and maintaining systematic reviews of all the relevant evidence

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المراجعات المنهجية لجميع البيِّنات ذات الصلة

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