ADDITIONAL METHODS - PRINCIPLES OF TESTING

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Daniel (6th century BCE)
The Book of Daniel, Chapter 1:1-16.

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al-Razi (10th century CE)
Shukuk ala Jalinus. [Doubts about Galen]

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Ibn Hindu (10th-11th century CE; 4th-5th century AH)
Miftah al-tibb wa-minhaj al-tullab [The key to the science of medicine and the students' guide].

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Ben Cao Tu Jing (11th century)
Atlas of Materia Medica. Song Dynasty (960-1279).

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Abd al-Latif ibn Yusuf al-Baghdadi (13th century CE, 7th century AH)
The Book of the Two Pieces of Advice by Abd al-Latif, the son of Yusuf, to the General Public (Kitab al-Nasihatain min Abd al-Latif b. Yusuf ila l-nas kaffatan). Bursa: MS Hüseyin Çelebi 823, item number 5; medical section on fol. 62a-78a; philosophical section: fol. 78b-100b.

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al-Razi (10th century CE; 4th century AH)
Kitab al-Hawi fi al-tibb [The comprehensive book of medicine].

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Ibn Sīnā (c.1012 CE; c.402 AH)
Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb [Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine].

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Bacon, Roger (1266)
Opus maius. MS Digby 325, 15th century manuscript. Bodleian Library, Oxford

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Petrarca F (14th century)
Letter to Boccaccio. Print: Senilium Liber V Epistola iii in: Annotatio nonnullorum librorum seu epistolarum Francisci Petrarche. Venetiis: Torresanus de Asula (1501). Manuscript: Key passage in the late 14th / early 15th century manuscript Biblioteca Marciana Lat. XI 17 / Francesco Petrarca; fol. 28r, second column, lines 9 – 22. (Facsimile of MS: Petrarca F (2003). Seniles, (eds Stocchi MP, Marcon S). Venice: Marsilio.)

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Fioravanti L (1573)
Communication addressed to "Illustrissimo e Eccellentissimo Signor Al Protofisico Boldon e al Vicario di Giustizia", 22 xxxx 1573.

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Stuart, James, King of Great Britaine, France and Ireland (1616)
A counterblaste to tobacco. In: The workes of the most high and mightie prince, James Published by James, Bishop of Winton, and Deane of his Majesties Chappel Royall. London: printed by Robert Barker and John Bill, printers to the Kings most excellent Majestie, pp 214-222.

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Bacon F (1645)
Franc Baconis de Verulamio / Summi Angliae Cancellarii /Novum organum scientiarum. Lugd. Bat: apud Adrianum Wiingaerde, et Franciscum Moiardum. Aphorism XLVI (pages 45-46).

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Starkey G (1657)
Natures explication and Helmont’s vindication…Or A short and sure way to a long and sound life. London: printed by E. Cotes for Thomas Alsop at the two Sugar-loaves over against St. Antholins Church at the lower end of Watling Street.

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Nettleton T (1722)
Part of a letter from Dr. Nettleton, physician at Halifax, to Dr. Jurin, R. S. Sec concerning the inoculation of the small pox, and the mortality of that distemper in the natural way. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1722-1723) 32:209-212.

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Massey I (1723)
A short and plain account of inoculation. With some remarks on the main argument made use of to recommend that practice, by Mr. Maitland and others. To which is added, a letter to the learned James Jurin, M.D.R.S. Secr. Col. Reg. Med. Lond. Soc. London: W. Meadows.

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Clifton F (1732)
The state of physick, ancient and modern, briefly considered: with a plan for the improvement of it. London printed by W Bowyer, for John Nourse without Temple-Bar.

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Smellie W (1752)
A treatise on the theory and practice of Midwifery. 2nd edition. London: D. Wilson, T Durham, p 224.

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Hillary W (1761)
An inquiry into the means of improving medical knowledge. London: Hitch and Hawes.

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Lind J (1762)
An essay on the most effectual means of preserving the health of seamen, in the Royal Navy. London: D Wilson.

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Lind J (1763)
Two papers on fevers and infection. London: D Wilson.

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Pierce R (1763)
Quoted in Sutherland A. Attempts to revive ancient medical doctrines Volume 1. London: A Millar, pp xxiii-xxiv.

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Watson W (1768)
An account of a series of experiments, instituted with a view of ascertaining the most successful method of inoculating the smallpox. London: J Nourse.

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Lind J (1771)
An essay on diseases incidental to Europeans in hot climates. London: Becket and De Hondt.

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Aikin J (1771)
Thoughts on hospitals. London: Joseph Johnson.

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Society of Gentlemen in Scotland (1771)
Medicine. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vol 1. Edinburgh: Bell & Macfarquhar, pp 630-632.

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Gregory J (1772)
Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. London: Strahan and Cadell.

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Cullen W (1772)
Clinical lectures. Edinburgh, Feb-April, 218-219.

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Sims J (1774)
A discourse on the best methods of prosecuting medical enquiries. London: J Johnson, p78-9, 80, 86-88, 99-101.

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Lettsom JC (1775)
On the improvement of medicine in London on the basis of public good. London: Phillips.

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Millar J (1777)
Observations on the practice in the medical department of the Westminster General Dispensary. London, by order of the Governors.

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Dobson M (1779)
A medical commentary on fixed air. Chester: J. Monk.

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Millar J (1779)
Observations on the management of the prevailing diseases particularly in the Army and Navy. London, for the author.

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Clark J (1780)
Observations on fevers, especially of the continued type. London: T Cadell.

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Home F (1780)
Clinical experiments, histories and dissections. Edinburgh: Creech; London: Murray.

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Black W (1782)
An historical sketch of medicine and surgery from their origin to the present time. London: J Johnson.

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Commission Royale. Bailly A (1784)
Rapport des commissaires chargés par le Roi, de l'examen du magnétisme animale [Report of the Comissioners required by the King to examine animal magnetism]. Imprimé par ordre du Roi. Paris: A Paris, de L'Imprimerie Royale.

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Lavoisier A-L de (1784)
Undated documents contained in: Mémoires de Lavoisier, Oeuvres, Tome III. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1865. p 509.

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Fowler T (1785)
Medical reports of the effects of tobacco in the cure of dropsies and dysuries.... London: J Johnson.

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Fowler T (1786)
Medical reports of the effects of arsenic in the cure of agues, remitting fevers and periodic headachs. London: J Johnson, pp 105-107.

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Black W (1788)
A comparative view of the mortality of the human species at all ages. London: Dilly, pp 35-38.

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Percival T (1788)
Essays medical, philosophical and experimental Vol 1.4th ed. Warrington: Eyres, for London: Johnson.

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Hunter J (1788)
A treatise on the venereal disease. London: G Nicol and J Johnson, pp 69-70.

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Gordon A (1788)
The practice of physick. Unpublished manuscript.

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Black W (1789)
An arithmetical and medical analysis of the diseases and mortality of the human species. London: J Johnson.

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Robertson R (1789)
Observations on jail, hospital, or ship fever. New ed. London: for the Author.

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Robertson R (1790)
Essay on fever. London: printed for the author.

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Clark J (1792)
Observations on the diseases which prevail in long voyages to hot countries. London: J Murray.

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Ferriar J (1792)
Medical histories and reflections. Vol 1. London: Cadell and Davies.

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Trotter T (1792)
Observations on the scurvy. London: Longman, pp 137-138, 184.

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Fordyce G (1793)
An attempt to improve the evidence of medicine. Transactions of a Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge.  London: J Johnson.

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Rowley W (1793)
The causes of a great number of deaths amongst adults and children. 2nd edn. London: Newbery.

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Hunter J (1794)
A treatise on the blood, inflammation and gun-shot wounds. London: G Nichol, p 531.

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Ferriar J (1795)
Medical histories and reflections. Vol. 2. London: Cadell and Davies.

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Fordyce G (1798)
A third dissertation on fever, Parts I & II. London: J Johnson.

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Fordyce G (1802)
A second dissertation on fever. London: J Johnson.

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Fordyce G (1803)
A fifth dissertation on fever. London: J Johnson.

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Currie W (1804)
Medical reports of the effects of water: cold and warm as a remedy in fever and febrile diseases. Vol. 2. London: M’Creery & Cadell.

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Blane G (1813)
Observations on the comparative prevalence, mortality, & treatment of different diseases.... Medico-chirurgical Transactions, Vol 4, p 89-141, London.

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Guthrie GJ (1815)
A treatise on gun-shot wounds. London: Burgess and Hill.

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Hutchinson AC (1817)
Some further observations on the subject of the proper period for amputating in gun-shot wounds. London: Callow, p16.

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Marcet A (1819)
An essay on the chemical history and medical treatment of calculous disorders. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown.

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Prout WM (1821)
An inquiry into the nature and treatment of gravel, calculus and other diseases connected with a deranged operation of the urinary organs. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy.

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Richerand A (1825)
Histoire des progrès récens de la chirurgie [History of recent progress in surgery]. Paris: Béchet le Jeune, p 27.

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Hawkins FB (1829)
The elements of medical statistics. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green.

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Yelloly J (1829)
Remarks on the tendency to calculous diseases with observations on the nature of urinary concretions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 119: 55-81.

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Magendie F (1829)
Formulaire pour la préparation et l'emploi de plusieurs médicaments. Paris, imprimerie de Plassan,1ère édition.

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Todd TJ (1831)
The book of analysis or a new method of experience.... London.

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Ministry of Internal Affairs (1832)
[Conclusion of the Medical Council regarding homeopathic treatment] . Zhurnal Ministerstva Vnutrennih del;3:49-63.

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Bostock J (1833)
History of medicine. In: Forbes et al. eds. The cyclopaedia of practical medicine. Vol 1. Sherwood et al.: London, pp i-lxxii (see p lxix).

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Louis PCA (1835)
Recherches sur les effets de la saignée dans quelques maladies inflammatoires et sur l'action de l'émétique et des vésicatoires dans la pneumonie [Research on the effects of bloodletting in some inflammatory illnesses and on the action of emetics and blistering in pneumonia]. Paris: Librairie de l'Académie royale de médecine.

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Bigelow J (1835)
A discourse on self-limited diseases, delivered before the Massachusetts Medical Society at their annual meeting, May 27, 1835. Boston: Nathan Hale p 8-10.

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Hunter J (1835)
The works of John Hunter FRS, edited by James F Palmer, Vol 1. London: Longman et al., p 360.

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Louis PCA (1837)
The applicability of statistics to the practice of medicine. London Medical Gazette 20 :488-491.

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Gavarret LDJ (1840)
Principes généraux de statistique médicale: ou développement des régles qui doivent présider à son emploi [General principles of medical statistics: or the development of rules that must govern their use]. Paris: Bechet jeune & Labé.

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Alcock R (1840)
Observations on injuries of joints and their treatment. Medico - chirurgical Transactions 23: 243-322.

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Alcock R (1840-41a)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 1 of 20). Lancet 1:105-111 and passim up to 2:849—858.

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Alcock R (1840-41b)
Lectures on amputations and on the nature, progress and termination of the injuries for which it is required (Lecture 2 of 20). Lancet 1:217-220 and passim up to 2:849—858.

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Bartlett E (1844)
An essay on the philosophy of medical science. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard.

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Forbes J (1846)
Homoeopathy, allopathy and “young physic”. British and Foreign Medical Review 225-265.

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Balfour TG (1854)
Quoted in West C. Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. London, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, p 600.

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Holmes OW (1861)
Currents and countercurrents in medical science with other addresses and essays. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1861.

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Mill JS (1862)
A system of logic ratiocinative and inductive. 5th Edn,vol 1. London:Parker, Son and Bourn, pp418,431-3.

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Béclard PA (1863)
Rapport général sur les prix décernés en 1862 [General report on the prizes awarded in 1862]. Mémoires de l’Académie Impériale de Médecine XXVI, Paris: Ballière, pp. xxii-xxxv.

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Flint A (1863)
A contribution toward the natural history of articular rheumatism; consisting of a report of thirteen cases treated solely with palliative measures. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 46:17-36.

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Barclay AW (1864)
Medical errors: fallacies connected with the application of the inductive method of reasoning to the science of medicine. London: Churchill, p 55 and 71-71.

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Bernard C (1865)
Introduction à l'étude de la médicine expérimentale [Introduction to the study of experimental medicine]. Paris: Flammarion.

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Sutton HG (1865)
Cases of rheumatic fever treated for the most part by mint water. Guy’s Hospital Reports 2:392-428.

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Bennett JH (1865)
The restorative treatment of pneumonia. Edinburgh, AC Black.

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Bain A (1870)
Logic. London: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer p 362.

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Wanscher O (1877)
Om Diphteritis og Croup - særligt med hensyn til Tracheostomien ved samme. [On diphtheria and croup - especially regarding tracheostomy in this condition]. Disputats [Thesis]. Jacob Lund: Kjøbenhavn, p 67-68.

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O’Dwyer J (1887)
Fifty cases of croup in private practice treated by intubation of the larynx, with a description of the method and of the dangers incident thereto. Medical Record 32:557-561.

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Ephraim A (1890)
Uber die Bedeutung de statistischen Methode für die Medicin [On the relevance of the statistical method for medicine]. Volkmann’s Sammlung Klinische Vortraege N.F. Innere Medicin 24:706-716. Leipzig: Breitkopf and Härtel.

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Andrew J (1891)
Harveian Oration. London: Adlard and Son. p 16-19.

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Moll A (1891)
Hypnotism. London: Walter Scott, p 224.

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Behring EA, Boer NN, Kossel H (1893)
Zur Behandlung diphtheriekranker Menschen mit Diphtherieheilserum [On the treatment of diphtheria patients with curative diphtheria serum]. Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift 17:389-39.

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Haffkine WM (1896)
Correspondence: Explanation of his inoculation report forms. Indian Medical Gazette 31:189-190.

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Heiberg P (1897)
Studier over den statistiske undersøgelsesmetode som hjælpemiddel ved terapeutiske undersøgelser [Studies on the statistical study design as an aid in therapeutic trials]. Bibliotek for Læger 89:1-40.

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Hulshoff-Pol MDJ (1902)
Katjang idjo, un nouveau medicament contre le béri-béri [Katjang idjo (mung beans), a new treatment for beri-beri]. Janus 7:524-581.

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Rosenbach O (1905)
Die Diagnose als ätiologischer Factor [The diagnosis as a factor in aetiology]. Zeitschrift fur klinische Medicin 56:232-240.

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Rivers WHR (1908)
The influence of alcohol and other drugs on fatigue. London: Edward Arnold.

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Freeman J (1910)
Vaccine therapy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 3:97-101.

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Sollmann T (1917)
The crucial test of therapeutic evidence. JAMA 69:198-199.

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Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry (1917)
Biniodol. JAMA 68: 650-51.

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Bleuler E (1919)
Das Autistisch-Undisziplinierte Denken in der Medizin und Seine Überwindung [Autistic-undisciplined thinking in medicine and how to overcome it]. Berlin: Springer.

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Locke EA (1924)
The serologic treatment of lobar pneumonia. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 190:196-203.

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Greenwood M (1924)
Is the statistical method of any value in medical research? Lancet 2: 153-158.

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Lewis S (1925)
Arrowsmith. New York: Collier.

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Malaria Commission of the Health Organisation (1925)
Report on its tour of investigation in certain European countries in 1924. Geneva: League of Nations. C.H. 273.

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Swellengrebel NH (1925)
A summary of the more important facts on adult anophelines and their larvae observed by us or brought to our notice duing our tour through eastern Europe and Italy (May-September 1924). pp183-190. In: Malaria Commission of the Health Organisation (1925). Report on its tour of investigation in certain European countries in 1924. Geneva: League of Nations. C.H. 273.

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Bullowa JGM (1928)
The control. Contribution to a symposium on the use of antipneumococcic refined serum in lobar pneumonia, 15 December 1927. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Sciences 4:339-343.

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Greenwood M (1934)
Epidemics and crowd-diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Medical Research Council Therapeutic Trials Committee (1934)
The serum treatment of lobar pneumonia. BMJ 1:241-245.

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Sutliff WD (1936)
Adequate tests of curative therapy in man. Annals of Internal Medicine 1936-1937;10:89-97.

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Bentley PJ (1936)
Artificial pneumothorax: experience of the London County Council. Medical Research Council. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office.

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Hill AB (1937)
Principles of medical statistics. London: Lancet.

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Parrot A, Catanei A, Ambialet R, Clastrier J (1937)
Comparative experiments in mass prophylaxis of malaria by means of quinine and synthetic drugs (quinacrine and praequine). Bulletin of the Health Organization of the League of Nations 6:685-765.

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Hill AB (1937)
Principles of medical statistics. I. The aim of the statistical method; and General summary and conclusions. Lancet 1:41-43 and 883-885.

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Hill AB (1937)
Artificial pneumothorax on statistical trial. Lancet 229: 535-536.

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Editorial (1937)
Mathematics and medicine. Lancet 1:31.

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Bullowa JGM (1937)
Serum therapy. In: Bullowa JGM. The management of the pneumonias. New York: Oxford University Press, pp 283-298.

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Mainland D (1938)
The treatment of clinical and laboratory data: an introduction to statistical ideas and methods for medical and dental workers. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.

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Bahnsen P, Jacobsen E, Thesleff H (1938)
Studien über die Wirkung von beta-phenyl-isopropylaminsulfdat (Mecodrin) auf normale Menschen. [Studies on the effect of beta-phenyl-isopropylaminsulfdat (Mecodrin) on normal volunteers]. Klinische Wochenschrift 17:1074-1078.

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Lanman TH, Heyl HL (1939)
Empyema in Children. New England Journal of Medicine 221:1003-1009.

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Gaddum JH (1940)
Pharmacology. London: Oxford University Press, p 378-383, 1940.

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Dahlberg G (1940)
Statistical methods for medical and biological students. London: George Allen & Unwin.

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Hinshaw HC, Feldman WH (1944)
Evaluation of therapeutic agents in clinical tuberculosis. American Review in Tuberculosis 50:202-213.

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Bell JA (1948)
The epidemiological principles and procedures involved in a study of the prophylactic value of an alum-precipated mixture of diphtheria toxoid and pertussis vaccine. Thesis submitted to the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Public Health.

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Marshall EK (1949)
Clinical therapeutic trial of a new drug. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 85:221-230.

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Editorial (1950)
Are statistics necessary? JAMA 143:1260-1261.

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Reid DD (1950)
Statistics in clinical research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 52:931-934.

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Daniels M (1951)
Clinical evaluation of chemotherapy in tuberculosis. British Medical Bulletin 7:320-326.

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Hill AB (1951)
The clinical trial. British Medical Bulletin 7:278-282.

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Hill AB (1952)
The clinical trial. New England Journal of Medicine 247:113-119.

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Hogben L (1954)
The assessment of remedies. Medical Press 232:331-338.

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Lasagna L (1955)
The controlled clinical trial: theory and practice. Journal of Chronic Diseases 1:353-367.

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Cox DR (1958)
Planning of experiments. London: Wiley.

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Symposium on Clinical Trials RSM (1958)
Report of a meeting held at the Royal Society of Medicine, London on 25th April 1958.

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Kerr DNS, Davidson S (1958)
Gastrointestinal intolerance to oral iron preparations. Lancet 2:489-492.

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Doll R (1959)
Practical problems of drug trials in clinical practice. Lawrence DR, ed. Quantitative methods in human pharmacology and therapeutics. Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 213-221.

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Oldham PD (1959)
Clinical and field trials. Acta Medica Hungarica 14:313-326.

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Witts LJ (1959)
Medical surveys and clinical trials: some methods and applications of group research in medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Bull JP (1959)
The historical development of clinical therapeutic trials. Journal of Chronic diseases 10:218-248.

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Waife SO, Shapiro AP (1959)
The clinical evaluation of new drugs. New York: Hoeber-Harper.

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Zubrod CG, Schneiderman M, Frei E, Brindley C, Gold GL, Shnider B, Oviedo R, Gorman J, Jones R, Jonsson U, Colsky J, Chalmers T, Ferguson B, Dederick M, Holland J, Selawry O, Regelson W, Lasagna L, Owens AH (1960)
Appraisal of methods for the study of chemotherapy in man: Comparative therapeutic trial of nitrogen mustard and thiophosphoramide. Journal of Chronic Diseases 11:7-33.

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Hill AB (1960)
Controlled clinical trials. Oxford: Blackwell.

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Schwartz D, Flamant R, Lellouch J, Rouquette C (1960)
Les essais thérapeutiques cliniques [Controlled clinical trials]. Paris: Masson.

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Cochran WG (1961)
Designing clinical trials. In: Forster FM, ed. Evaluation of drug therapy. University of Wisconsin Press, pp 71-77.

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Schneidermann MA (1966)
Therapeutic trials in cancer. Working paper prepared for WHO Expert Committee on Cancer Treatment, Geneva, Switzerland, 9-15 March 1965. WHO/CANC/66.66.

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Schwartz D, Lellouch J (1967)
Explanatory and pragmatic attitudes in therapeutic trials. Journal of Chronic Disease 20:637-48.

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Chalmers TC (1968)
When should randomisation begin? Lancet 1:858.

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Ley HL (1969)
Antibiotic drugs: procedural and interpretive regulations. Federal Register Vol. 34, No. 180, pp14596-597.

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Schwartz D, Flamant R, Lellouch J (1970)
L’essai thérapeutique chez l‘homme. Paris: Flammarion.

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Cornfield J (1971)
The University Group Diabetes Program: a further statistical analysis of the mortality findings. JAMA 217:1676-87.

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Chalmers TC (1975)
Randomization of the first patient. Medical Clinics of North America 59:1035-1038.

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Peto R, Pike MC, Armitage P, Breslow NE, Cox DR, Howard SV, Mantel N, McPherson K, Peto J, Smith PG (1976)
Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. I. Introduction and design. British Journal of Cancer 34:585-6.

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Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F (1977)
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Pocock SJ (1977)
Randomised clinical trials. BMJ 1:1661.

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Peto R, Pike MC, Armitage P, Breslow NE, Cox DR, Howard SV, Mantel N, McPherson K, Peto J, Smith PG (1977)
Design and analysis of randomized clinical trials requiring prolonged observation of each patient. II. Analysis and examples. British Journal of Cancer 35:1-39. PMID 831755.

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Farquhar JW (1978)
The community-based model of life style intervention trials. American Journal of Epidemiology 108:103-111.

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Sackett DL (1979)
Bias in analytic research. Journal of Chronic Diseases 32:51-63.

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Chalmers TC, Smith JH, Blackburn B, Silverman B, Schroeder B, Reitman D, Ambroz A (1981)
A method for assessing the quality of a randomized control trial. Controlled Clinical Trials 2: 31-49.

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Pocock SJ (1983)
Clinical trials: a practical approach. Chichester: John Wiley.

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Bulpitt CJ (1984)
Randomised controlled clinical trials. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

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Peto J, Eden OB, Lilleyman J, Richards S (1986)
Improvement in treatments for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: The Medical Research Council UKALL Trials, 1972-84. Lancet 1:408-411.

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Jenicek M (1987)
Méta-analyse en médecine. Évaluation et synthèse de l’information clinique et épidémiologique. [Meta-analysis in medicine: evaluation and synthesis of clinical and epidemiological information] St.Hyacinthe and Paris: EDISEM and Maloine Éditeurs.

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Chalmers TC (1988)
Data analysis for clinical medicine: the quantitative approach to patient care in gastroenterology. Rome: International University Press.

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Jenicek M (1989)
Meta-analysis in medicine: where we are and where we want to go. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42:35-44.

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Pocock SJ, Hughes MD (1989)
Practical problems in interim analyses, with particular regard to estimation. Control Clinical Trials10 (4 Suppl):209S-221S.

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O’Rourke K, Detsky AS (1989)
Meta-analysis in medical research: strong encouragement for higher quality in individual research efforts. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42:1021-24.

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Donner A, Brown KS, Brasher P (1990)
A methodological review of non-therapeutic intervention trials employing cluster randomization, 1979-1989. International Journal of Epidemiology 19:795-800.

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Simpson JM, Klar N, Donner A (1995)
Accounting for cluster randomization: a review of primary prevention trials, 1990 through 1993. American Journal of Public Health 85:1378-1383.

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Perel P, Roberts I, Sena E, Wheble P, Briscoe C, Sandercock S, Macleod M,  Mignini LE, Jayaram P, Khan KS (2007)
Comparison of treatment effects between animal experiments and clinical trials: systematic review. BMJ 334:197-200.

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Djulbegovic B, Kumar A, Soares HP, Hozo I, Bepler G, Clarke M, Bennett CL (2008)
Treatment success in cancer: new cancer treatment successes identified in phase 3 randomized controlled trials conducted by the national cancer institute-sponsored cooperative oncology groups, 1955 to 2006. Archives of Internal Medicine. 168:632-42.

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Wartolowska K, Judge A, Hopewell S, Collins GS, Dean BJF, Rombach I, Brindley D, Savulescu J, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2014)
Use of placebo controls in the evaluation of surgery: systematic review. BMJ 348:g3253. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3253.

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Wartolowska KA, Collins GS, Hopewell S, Judge A, Dean BJF, Rombach I, Beard DJ, Carr AJ (2016)
Feasibility of surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm: a systematic review. BMJ Open 6: p.e010194.

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Donaldson IML (2016).
Reflections on translating passages on ‘empirical’ and ‘dogmatic’ medicine in Celsus’s De medicina. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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1.1 Why treatment uncertainties should be addressed

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2.1 Why comparisons must address genuine uncertainties

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