INTERVENTIONS — NUTRITION

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Daniel (6th century BCE)
The Book of Daniel, Chapter 1:1-16.

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Lind J (1753)
A treatise of the scurvy. In three parts. Containing an inquiry into the nature, causes and cure, of that disease. Together with a critical and chronological view of what has been published on the subject. Edinburgh: Printed by Sands, Murray and Cochran for A Kincaid and A Donaldson.

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Blane G (1789)
Observations on the diseases incident to seamen. 2nd edition. London: Cooper.

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Trotter T (1792)
Observations on the scurvy. London: Longman, pp 137-138, 184.

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Rollo J (1801)
A short account of the Royal Artillery Hospital at Woolwich. London: Mawman.

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Sutton HG (1865)
Cases of rheumatic fever treated for the most part by mint water. Guy’s Hospital Reports 2:392-428.

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Vorderman AG (1897)
Onderzoek naar het verband tusschen den aard der rijstvoeding in de gevangenissen op Java en Madoera en het voorkomen van beri-beri onder de geïnterneerden. Batavia: Jav. Boekh. & Drukkerij.

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Hulshoff-Pol MDJ (1902)
Katjang idjo, un nouveau medicament contre le béri-béri [Katjang idjo (mung beans), a new treatment for beri-beri]. Janus 7:524-581.

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Takaki K (1906)
On the preservation of health among the personnel of the Japanese navy and army. Lecture II: The methods for investigating the cause of beri-beri. Lancet 1:1451-55.

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Fletcher W (1907)
Rice and beri-beri: preliminary report on an experiment conducted in the Kuala Lumpur Insane Asylum. Lancet 1:1776-1779.

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Wiltshire HW (1918)
Note on the value of germinated beans in the treatment of scurvy, and some points in prophylaxis. Lancet 2:811-813.

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Marine D, Kimball OP (1920)
The prevention of simple goiter in man: fourth paper. Archives of Internal Medicine 25:661-72.

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Chick H, Dalyell EJ (1921)
Observations on the influence of foods in stimulating development in backward children. BMJ 2:1061-1066.

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Chick H, Dalyell EJ, Hume EM, Mackay HMM, Henderson Smith H, Wimberger H (1923)
Observations upon the prophylaxis and cure of rickets at the University Kinderklinik, Vienna. In: Medical Research Council. Studies of rickets in Vienna, 1919-22. Special Report Series No. 77. London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, pp 19-94.

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Goldberger J, Waring CH, Tanner WF (1923)
Pellagra prevention by diet among inmates. Public Health Reports 38:2361-2368.

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Corry Mann HC (1926)
Diets for boys during the school age. Medical Research Council Special Report Series No. 105, London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office.

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Minot GR, Murphy WP (1926)
Treatment of pernicious anaemia by a special diet. JAMA 87:470-476.

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Leighton G, McKinlay PL (1930)
Milk consumption and the growth of schoolchildren. Department of Health for Scotland. Edinburgh and London: HM Stationery Office.

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Green HN, Pindar D, Davis G, Mellanby E (1931)
Diet as a prophylactic agent against puerperal sepsis. BMJ 2:595-598.

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Blatt ML, Shaw NG (1932)
Bacillary dysentery in children: a report of the cases in the Cook County Children's Hospital, Chicago, for 1932. Presented a Regular Meeting of the Chicago Pediatric Society, 20 Dec 1932, reported in Archives of Pediatrics.

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Ellison JB (1932)
Intensive vitamin therapy in measles. BMJ 2:708-711.

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Sutherland R (1934)
Vitamins A and D: their relation to growth and resistance to disease. BMJ 1:791–795.

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Corrigan JG, Strauss MB (1936)
The prevention of hypochromic anaemia in pregnancy. JAMA 106:1088-1090.

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Jolliffe N, Colbert CN (1936)
The etiology of polyneuritis in the alcohol addict. JAMA 107:642-7.

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Theobald GW (1937)
Effect of calcium and vitamin A and D on incidence of pregnancy toxaemia. Lancet 2:1397-1399.

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Aykroyd WR, Krishnan RSBG (1938)
Effect of calcium lactate on children in a nursery school. Lancet 2:153-155.

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Goodhart R, Jolliffe N (1938)
Effects of vitamin B (B1) therapy on the polyneuritis of alcohol addicts. JAMA 110:414-419.

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Ross RA, Perlzweig WA, Taylor HM, McBryde A, Yates A, Kondritzer AA, Durham NC (1938)
A study of certain dietary factors of possible etiologic significance in toxemias of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 35:426-440.

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Browne FJ (1939)
Vitamin E: (Section of Therapeutics and Pharmacology). Proc R Soc Med. 3: 853–864.

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Price MR (1940)
Effects of a supplement of vitamin B (adsorbate) on the growth of infants. BMJ 2:80-82.

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Cochrane AL (1941)
Reported in: Sickness in Salonica: my first, worst, and most successful clinical trial. BMJ 1984;289:1726-1727.

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People's League of Health (1942)
Nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers: interim report. Lancet 2:10-12.

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Browne FJ (1943)
On the value of vitamin B1 in prevention of toxaemia of pregnancy. BMJ 1:445-446.

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Fowke H (1943)
The effect of supplements of vitamins and minerals on the health of girls. BMJ 2:519.

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Harper AA, MacKay IFS, Raper HS, Camm GL (1943)
Vitamins and physical fitness. BMJ 1:243–245.

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Payne WW (1943)
Vitamin C in school-children. Lancet 41(6252):819-820.

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Dieckmann WJ, Adair FL, Michel H, Kramer S, Dunkle F, Arthur B, Costin M, Campbell A, Wensley AC, Lorang E (1944)
Calcium, phosphorus, iron and nitrogen balances in pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 47:357-368.

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Darmady EM (1945)
The effects of protein diet on infective hepatitis. BMJ 1:795-797.

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Gunther M (1945)
Sore nipples - causes and prevention. Lancet 2:590-593.

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Higgins G, O'Brien JRP, Peters RA, Stewart A, Witts LJ (1945)
Treatment of infectious hepatitis with methionine. BMJ 1:401-402.

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Richardson JS, Suffern WS (1945)
A therapeutic trial of choline chloride in infective hepatitis. BMJ 2:156-157.

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Wilson C, Pollock MR, Harris AD (1945)
Therapeutic trial of methionine in infective hepatitis. BMJ 1:399-401.

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Bransby ER, Burn JL, Magee HE, MacKecknie DM (1946)
Effect of a daily vitamin supplement on the health and development of children. BMJ 1:193-197.

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Magee HE (1946)
Application of nutrition to public health: some lessons of the War. BMJ 1:475-482.

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Wilson C, Pollock MR, Harris AD (1946)
Diet in the treatment of infective hepatitis. Lancet 1:881-883.

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Robinson M (1947)
Cramps in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 54:826-829.

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Wills L, Hill G, Bingham K, Miall M, Wrigley J (1947)
Haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. The effect of the rationing scheme and routine administration of iron. British Journal of Nutrition 1:126-138.

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Makinson DH, Oleesky S, Stone RV (1948)
Vitamin E in angina pectoris. Lancet 1:102.

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MRC Vitamin C subcommittee (1948)
Vitamin-C requirement of human adults. Experimental study of Vitamin-C deprivation in man. Lancet 251: 852-858.

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Travell J, Rinzler SH, Bakst H, Benjamin ZH, Bobb AL (1949)
Comparison of effects of alpha-tocopherol and matching placebo on chest pain in patients with heart disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 52:345-53.

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Birk G, Böhm A (1950)
Leberextrakt als Roborans [Is liver extract a ‘tonic’]? Die Medizinische Welt 1:51-52.

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Downes J (1950)
An experiment in the control of tuberculosis among negroes. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 28:180-220.

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Doll R, Pygott F (1952)
Factors influencing the rate of healing of gastric ulcers: admission to hospital, phenobarbitone, and ascorbic acid. Lancet 1: 171-175.

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Hamilton M, Wilson GM, Armitage P, Boyd JT (1953)
The treatment of intermittent clauication with Vitamin E. Lancet 1: 367-370.

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Bickel H, Gerrard J, Hickmans EM. (1953)
Influence of phenylalanine intake on phenylketonuria. Lancet 265:812-813.

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Chalmers TC, Eckhardt RD, Reynolds WE, Cigarroa JG, Deane N, Reifenstein RW, Smith CW, Davidson CS (1955)
The treatment of acute infectious hepatitis. Controlled studies of the effects of diet, rest, and physical reconditioning on the acute course of the disease and on the incidence of relapses and residual abnormalities. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34: 1163-1235.

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Franz WL, Sands GW, Heyl HL (1956)
Blood ascorbic acid level in bioflavinoid and ascorbic acid therapy of common cold. JAMA 162:1224-1226.

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Tebrock HE, Arminio JJ, Johnston JH (1956)
Usefulness of bioflavinoids and ascorbic acid in treatment of common cold. JAMA 162:1227-1233.

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Kerr DNS, Davidson S (1958)
Gastrointestinal intolerance to oral iron preparations. Lancet 2:489-492.

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Leitch I (1959)
The place of analytical and critical reviews in any growing biological science and the service they may render to research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information, 2 Vols. Washington DC: National Academies Press, p 571-588.

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Chalmers TC (1975)
Effects of ascorbic acid on the common cold. An evaluation of the evidence. Amer J Med 58:532-6.

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Hemminki E, Starfield B (1978)
Routine administration of iron and vitamins during pregnancy: review of controlled clinical trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85:404-410.

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Waber DP, Vuori-Christiansen L, Ortiz N, Clement JR, Christiansen NE, Mora JO, Reed RB, Herrera MG (1981)
Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr (Suppl 4):807-13.

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Kavale KA, Forness SR (1983)
Hyperactivity and diet treatment: A meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. I Learn Disabil 16:324-30.

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Simons-Morton BG, Coates TJ, Saylor KE, Sereghy E, Barofsky I (1984)
Great Sensations: a program to encourage heart healthy snacking by high school students. Journal of School Health 54:288-91.

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Puska P, Nissinen A, Pietinen P, Iacono J (1985)
Role of dietary fat in blood pressure control. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum. 176:62-9.

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Connor MK, Smith LG, Fryer A, Erickson S, Fryer S, Drake J (1986)
Future Fit: A cardiovascular health education and fitness project in an after-school setting. The Journal of School Health 56(8): 329-333.

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Sommer A, Tarwotjo I, Djunaedi E, West KP Jr, Loeden AA, Tilden R, Mele L (1986)
Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. A randomised controlled community trial. Lancet 24;1:1169-73.

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Chalmers I, ed (1988)
The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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West KP, Djunaedi E, Pandji A, Kusdiono, Tarwotjo I, Sommer A (1988)
Vitamin A supplementation and growth: a randomized community trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 48:1257-64.

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Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (1989)
Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Abdeljaber MH, Monto AS, Tilden RL, Schork MA, Tarwotjo I (1991)
The impact of Vitamin A supplementation on morbidity: a randomized community intervention trial. American Journal of Public Health 81:1654-1656.

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Knutsen SF, Knutsen R (1991)
The Tromsø survey: The family intervention study-the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow up. Preventive Medicine 20:197-212.

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Sinclair JC, Bracken MB (1992)
Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Sorensen G, Morris DM, Hunt MK, Hebert JR, Harris DR, Stoddart A, Ockene JK (1992)
Work-site nutrition intervention and employees’ dietary habits: The treatwell program. American Journal of Public Health 82:877-880.

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Jeffery RW, Forster JL, French SA, Kelder SH, Lando HA, McGovern PG, Jacobs DR, Baxter JE (1993)
The healthy worker project: A work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health 83:395-401.

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Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (1994)
The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Oxford: Update Software

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Thomas J, Harden A, Oakley A, Oliver S, Sutcliffe K, Rees R, Brunton G, Kavanagh J (2004)
Integrating qualitative research with trials in systematic reviews. BMJ 328:1010-1012.

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De Barra M, Erikson K, Strimling P (2014)
How feedback biases give ineffective medical treatments a good reputation. Journal of Medical Internet Research Res 16:e193. doi:10.2196/jmir.3214

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Armitage P (2002).
Randomisation and alternation: a note on Diehl et al. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
An early Medical Research Council controlled trial of vitamins for preventing infection. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Olsen SF (2002).
The People’s League of Health trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2003).
A controlled trial using a factorial design reported in 1946. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2003).
Clifford Wilson (1906-1997) and Martin Pollock (1914-1999). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind and scurvy: 1747 to 1795. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Tröhler U (2003).
James Lind at Haslar Hospital 1758-1774: a methodological theorist. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2003).
The contribution of William Fletcher’s 1907 report to finding a cause and cure for beriberi. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Weingarten S (2003).
Food in Daniel 1:1-16: the first controlled experiment? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Cochrane AL, Blythe M (2004).
Sickness in Salonica. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Rodeck CH (2004).
Geoffrey William Theobald (1896–1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sutton G (2004).
James Lind aboard Salisbury. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Pollock JI (2005).
Two controlled trials of supplementary feeding of British school children in the 1920s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Morabia A (2006).
Joseph Goldberger’s research on the prevention of pellagra. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Bastian H (2007).
Lucy Wills (1888-1964), the life and research of an adventurous independent woman. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Marks HM† (2007).
James Angus Doull and the well-controlled common cold. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sinclair L (2007).
Recognising, treating and understanding pernicious anaemia. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Middleton J (2008).
Pellagra and the blues song ‘Cornbread, meat and black molasses’. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2008).
A 1955 clinical trial report that changed my career. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Birbeck E (2011).
The Royal Hospital Haslar: from Lind to the 21st century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Fox DM (2011).
Systematic reviews and health policy: the influence of a project on perinatal care since 1988. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Milne I (2012).
Who was James Lind, and what exactly did he achieve? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Vandenbroucke JP (2012).
Adolphe Vorderman’s 1897 study on beriberi: an example of scrupulous efforts to avoid bias. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sugiyama Y, Seita A (2013).
Kanehiro Takaki and the control of beriberi in the Japanese Navy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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