James Lind Library
Illustrating the development of fair tests of treatments in health care
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INTERVENTIONS — EDUCATION
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Emparanza JI, Cabello JB, Burls AJ. (2015)
Does evidence-based practice improve patient outcomes? An analysis of a natural experiment in a Spanish hospital. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21:1059-1065.
Thomas J, Harden A, Oakley A, Oliver S, Sutcliffe K, Rees R, Brunton G, Kavanagh J (2004)
Integrating qualitative research with trials in systematic reviews. BMJ 328:1010-1012.
Biglan A, Ary DV, Smolkowski K, Duncan T, Black C (2000)
A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control 9:24-32.
Harden A, Weston R, Oakley A (1999)
A review of the effectiveness and appropriateness of peer-delivered health promotion interventions for young people. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London, November.
Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Sun P, Craig S, Simon TR, Burton D, Flay BR (1993)
Project towards no tobacco use: 1-year behavior outcomes. American Journal of Public Health 83:1245-1250.
Lewis BS, Lynch WD (1993)
The effect of physician advice on exercise behavior. Preventive medicine 22:110-121.
Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N (1993)
Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: A randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives. American Journal of Public Health 83:1231-1238.
Elder JP, Wildey M, de Moor C, Sallis JF, Eckhardt L, Edwards C, Erickson A, Golbeck A, Hovell M, Johnston D, Levitz MD, Molgaard C, Young R, Vito D, Woodruff SI (1993)
The long-term prevention of tobacco use among junior high school students: Classroom and telephone investigations. American Journal of Public Health 83:1239-1244.
Bell RM, Ellickson PL, Harrison ER (1993)
Do drug prevention effects persist into high school? How project ALERT did with 9th graders. Preventive Medicine 22:463-483.
McCusker J, Stoddard Am, Zapka JG, Morrison CS, Zorn M, Lewis BF (1992)
AIDS education for drug abusers: Evaluation of short-term effectiveness. American Journal of Public Health 82:533-540.
Abernathy TJ, Bertrand LD (1992)
Preventing cigarette smoking among children: Results of a four-year evaluation of the PAL program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 83:226-229.
Arbeit ML, Johnson CC, Mott DS, Harsha DW, Nicklas TA, Webber LS, Berenson GS (1992)
The heart smart cardiovascular school health promotions: Behaviour correlates of risk factor change. Preventive medicine 21:18-32.
Rimer BK, Resch N, King E, Ross E, Lerman C, Boyce A, Engstrom PF (1992)
Multistrategy health education program to increase mammography use among women ages 65 and older. Public Health Reports 107:369-380.
Walker R, Heller R, Redman S, O’Connell D, Boulton J (1992)
Reduction of ischemic heart disease risk markers in the teenage children of heart attack patients. Preventive Medicine 21:616-629.
Hansen WB, Graham JW (1991)
Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive medicine 20:414-430.
Bauman KE, LaPrelle J, Brown JD, Koch GG, Padgett CA (1991)
The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: Results of a field experiment. American Journal of Public Health 81:597-604.
Worden JK, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Costanza MC, Foster RS, Dorwaldt AL, Weaver SO (1990)
A community-wide program in breast self-examination training and maintenance. Preventive Medicine 19;254-269.
Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Weber MD, Dwyer JH, Baer N, MacKinnon DP, Hansen WB, Flay BR (1990)
Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 58:447-56.
Botvin GJ, Tortu S, Baker E Dusenbury L (1990)
Preventing adolescent cigarette smoking: Resistance skills training and development of life skills. Special Services in the Schools 6:37-61.
Ary DV, Biglan A, Glasgow R, Zoref L, Black C, Ochs L, Severson H, Kelly R, Weissman W, Lichtenstein E, Brosovsky P, Wirt R, James L (1990)
The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus "standard care": are new initiatives needed? Journal of Behavioral Medicine 13:281-96.
Dielman TE, Shope JT, Leech SL, Butchart AT (1989)
Differential effectiveness of an elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program. The Journal of School Health 59(6):225-263.
Rubenstein LV, Calkins DR, Young RT, Cleary PD, Fink A, Kosecoff J, Jette AM, Davies AR, Delbanco TL, Brook RH (1989)
Improving patient function: A randomized trial of functional disability screening. Annals of Internal Medicine 111:836-842.
Kottke TE, Brekke ML, Solberg LI, Hughes JR (1989)
A randomized trial to increase smoking intervention by physicians. Doctors helping smokers, round 1. JAMA 261:2101-2106.
Fors SW, Owen S, Hall WD, McLaughlin J, Levinson R (1989)
Evaluation of a diffusion strategy for school-based hypertension education. Health Education Quarterly 16:255-61.
Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS (1989)
Six-year follow-up of the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Public Health 79:1371-6.
Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, Sheridan MJ, Walter HJ (1989)
Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: two-year results of the "Know Your Body" program. American Journal of Epidemiology 129:466-82.
Wilson DM, Taylor DW, Gilbert JR, Best JA, Lindsay EA, Willms DG, Singer J (1988)
A randomized trial of a family physician intervention for smoking cessation. JAMA 16;260:1570-4.
Job-Spira N, Meyer L, Bouvet E, Janaud A, Spira A (1988)
The prevention of sexually transmitted diseases which affect fertility: methodological problems and initial results. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 27:157-164.
Stanton BF, Clemens JD (1987)
An educational intervention for altering water-sanitation behaviors to reduce childhood diarrhea in urban Bangladesh. II. A randomized trial to assess the impact of the intervention on hygienic behaviors and rates of diarrhea. American Journal of Epidemiology 125:292-301.
Biglan A, Severson H, Ary D, Faller C, Gallison C, Thompson R, Glasgow R, Lichtenstein E (1987)
Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusals skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 10:159-71.
Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Schilling RF, Senechal VA (1986)
Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results. Public Health Reports 101:373-8.
Vartiainen E, Puska P, Tossavainen K, Viri L, Niskanen E, Moisio S, McAlister A, Pallonen U (1986)
Prevention of non-communicable diseases: Risk factors in youth. The North Karelia Youth Project (1984-88). Health Promotion 1:269-83.
Connor MK, Smith LG, Fryer A, Erickson S, Fryer S, Drake J (1986)
Future Fit: A cardiovascular health education and fitness project in an after-school setting. The Journal of School Health 56(8): 329-333.
Stross JK, Banwell BF, Wolf FM, Becker MC (1986)
Evaluation of an education program on the management of rheumatic diseases for physical therapists. Journal of Rheumatology 13:374-8.
Evans CE, Haynes RB, Birkett NJ, Gilbert JR, Taylor DW, Sackett DL, Johnston ME, Hewson SA (1986)
Does a mailed continuing education program improve physician performance? Results of a randomized trial in antihypertensive care. JAMA 24-31;255:501-4.
World Health Organisation European Collaborative Group (1986)
European collaborative trial of multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease: final report on the 6-year results. Lancet 1:869-72.
Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL (1985)
Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 122:772-81.
Walsh MM (1985)
Effects of school-based dental health education on knowledge, attitudes and behavior of adolescents in San Francisco. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 13:143-7.
Flay BR, Ryan KB, Best JA, Brown KS, Kersell MW, d'Avernas JR, Zanna MP (1985)
Are social-psychological smoking prevention programs effective? The Waterloo study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 8:37-59.
Sommers LS, Sholtz R, Shepherd RM, Starkweather DB (1984)
Physician involvement in quality assurance. Medical Care 22:1115-1138.
Simons-Morton BG, Coates TJ, Saylor KE, Sereghy E, Barofsky I (1984)
Great Sensations: a program to encourage heart healthy snacking by high school students. Journal of School Health 54:288-91.
McDonald CJ, Hui SL, Smith DM, Tierney WM, Cohen SJ, Weinberger M, McCabe GP (1984)
Reminders to physicians from an introspective computer medical record. A two-year randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 100:130-8.
Dielman TE, Leech SL, Lorenger AT, Horvath WJ (1984)
Resisting pressures to smoke: a longitudinal study. Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto. Report: ED 255 854; CG 018 186.
Sutter EE, Ballard RC (1983)
Community participation in the control of trachoma in Gazankulu. Social Science & Medicine 17:22:1813-1817.
Devine EC, Cook TD (1983)
A meta-analytic analysis of effects of psychoeducational interventions on length of postsurgical hospital stay. Nursing Research Practice 32(5):267-74.
Dwyer T, Coonan WE, Leitch DR, Hetzel BS, Baghurst RA (1983)
An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology 12:308-13.
Lloyd DM, Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, O'Connell DL, Leeder SR (1983)
Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: III--evaluation of a smoking prevention education programme Int J Epidemiol 12:51-8.
Perry CL, Telch MJ, Killen MJ, Burke J, Maccoby N (1983)
High school smoking prevention: The relative efficacy of varied treatments and instructions. Adolescence 18:561-6.
Rose G, Tunstall-Pedoe HD, Heller RF (1983)
UK heart disease prevention project: Incidence and mortality results. Lancet1:1062-6.
Mazzuca SA (1982)
Does patient education in chronic disease have therapeutic value? Journal of Chronic Diseases 35:521-529.
Waber DP, Vuori-Christiansen L, Ortiz N, Clement JR, Christiansen NE, Mora JO, Reed RB, Herrera MG (1981)
Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr (Suppl 4):807-13.
Andrews G, Guitar B, Howie P (1980)
Meta-analysis of the effects of stuttering treatment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders 45:287-307.
Farquhar JW (1978)
The community-based model of life style intervention trials. American Journal of Epidemiology 108:103-111.
Glass GV (1976)
Primary, secondary and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher 10: 3-8.
Berelson B, Freedman R (1964)
A study in fertility control. Scientific American 210:29-37.
Campbell DT, Stanley JC (1963)
Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company.
Powers E, Witmer HL (1951)
An experiment in the prevention of delinquency: the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study. New York: Columbia University Press.
Waller H (1946)
The early failure of breast feeding: a clinical study of its causes and their prevention. Archives of Disease in Childhood 21:1-12.
Aykroyd WR, Krishnan RSBG (1938)
Effect of calcium lactate on children in a nursery school. Lancet 2:153-155.
Walters JE (1932)
Measuring effectiveness of personnel counseling. Personnel Journal, 11, 227-236.
McCall WA (1923)
How to experiment in education. New York: Macmillan.
Gorgas WC (1902)
Mosquito work in Havana. New York: William Wood and Company.
Welsh BC, Podolsky SH, Zane SN (2020).
Between medicine and criminology: Richard Cabot’s contribution to the design of experimental evaluations of social interventions in the late 1930s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Glasziou P, Aronson JK (2017).
A brief history of clinical evidence updates and bibliographic databases JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Moberg J, Kramer M (2015).
A brief history of the cluster randomized trial design. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Gachelin G (2013).
The interaction of scientific evidence and politics in debates about preventing malaria in 1925. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Fox DM (2011).
Systematic reviews and health policy: the influence of a project on perinatal care since 1988. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Klar N, Donner A (2004).
The impact of E.F. Lindquist’s text “Statistical Analysis in Educational Research” on cluster randomisation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
What is a fair test?
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Where not otherwise indicated, material in the James Lind Library
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We welcome your suggestions for the design or content of the Library
, supported by the James Lind Initiative and the Presidential Fund of the Swiss National Science Foundation.