Test your knowledge: Why treatment uncertainties should be addressed

Posted by minervation on June 7, 2024

This quiz is based on JLL Essay 1.1 – Why treatment uncertainties should be addressed.

JLL Quiz 1.1

Why treatment uncertainties
should be addressed

Multiple-choice questions for Chapter 1.1 of The James Lind Library’s Introduction to Fair Tests of Treatments

Prepared by Mike Clarke.

1 / 5

Who might cause harm to others if they give or encourage the use of unproven treatments?

2 / 5

Who wrote, at the end of the nineteenth century, that too little bleeding was done to treat patients?

3 / 5

What harmful advice did Dr Benjamin Spock give?

4 / 5

How many people were estimated to have been killed by taking anti-arrhythmic drugs after a heart attack in the USA in the 1980s?

5 / 5

What is the main reason for doing fair tests of treatments?

Your score is

The average score is 72%


You can recap the content of the essay with Mike Clarke’s audio version:


The following JLL Records are cited in this Essay.

Behring, Boer, Kossel H (1893). Zur Behandlung diphtheriekranker Menschen mit Diphtherieheilserum. Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift 17:389-393.

Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists’ Collaborative Group (1994). Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomised trials of more than 1000 patients. Lancet 1994;343:311-322.

Fordyce G (1802).  A second dissertation on fever. London: J Johnson

Gilbert R, Salanti G, Harden M, See S (2005). Infant sleeping position and the sudden infant death syndrome: systematic review of observational studies and historical review of recommendations from 1940 to 2002. International Journal of Epidemiology 34:874-87.

Gregory J (1772). Lectures on the duties and qualifications of a physician. London: Strahan and Cadell.

Grimes DA (2007). Discovering the need for randomized controlled trials in obstetrics: a personal odyssey. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation (https://www.jameslindlibrary.org/articles/discovering-the-need-for-randomized-controlled-trials-in-obstetrics-a-personal-odyssey/).

Haygarth J (1800). Of the imagination, as a cause and as a cure of disorders of the body: exemplified by fictitious tractors, and epidemical convulsions. Bath: R. Crutwell.

Ibn Hindu (10th-11th century CE; 4th-5th century AH). Miftah al-tibb wa-minhaj al-tullab [The key to the science of medicine and the students’ guide].

Lesassier Hamilton A (1816). Dissertatio Medica Inauguralis De Synocho Castrensi (Inaugural medical dissertation on camp fever). Edinburgh: J Ballantyne.

Louis PCA (1835). Recherches sur les effets de la saignèe dans quelques maladies inflammatoires et sur l’action de l’èmètique et des vèsicatoires dans la pneumonie. Paris: Librairie de l’Acadèmie royale de mèdecine.

McPherson K (2004). Where are we now with hormone replacement therapy? BMJ 328:357-358.

Moore TJ (1995). Deadly Medicine. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Osler W (1892). Principles and Practice of Medicine. London: Appleton, p 530.

Perel P, Roberts I, Sena E, Wheble P, Briscoe C, Sandercock S, Macleod M, Mignini LE, Jayaram P, Khan KS (2007). Comparison of treatment effects between animal experiments and clinical trials: systematic review. BMJ 334:197-200.

Robertson R (1804). Observations on the diseases incident to seamen, 2nd edn. Vol. 1, London: for the author.

Silverman W (1980). In: Chalmers I, McIlwaine G (eds). Perinatal Audit and Surveillance. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 1980:110.

Silverman WA (2003). Personal reflections on lessons learned from randomized trials involving newborn infants, 1951 to 1967. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation (https://www.jameslindlibrary.org/articles/personal-reflections-on-lessons-learned-from-randomized-trials-involving-newborn-infants-1951-to-1967/).

Spock B (1966). Baby and Child Care. 165th printing. New York: Pocket Books, pp 163-164.

Van Helmont JB (1648). Ortus medicinæ: Id est Initia physicæ inaudita. Progressus medicinae novus, in morborum ultionem, ad vitam longam [The dawn of medicine: That is, the beginning of a new Physic. A new advance in medicine, a victory over disease, to (promote) a long life]. Amsterodami: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, pp 526-527.