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Biographical Notes

Zabdiel Boylston was a Boston basically self-trained physician who owes his place in medical history largely to the consequences of his alliance with Cotton Mather in the inoculation efforts of 1721. [Miller, Genevieve. Boylston, Zabdiel (9 Mar. 1680-1 Mar. 1766). American National Biography. Volume 3, Blatchford-Burnet. New York: Oxford University Press; 1999. Pp. 334-6.]

Benjamin Franklin See details at: Huth EJ. Benjamin Franklinís place in the history of medicine.

James Jurin was an eminent physician in London in the mid-18th century. Here are excerpts from his biography in Munk’s Roll (Munk 1878, p. 64-7):

JAMES JURIN, M.D., was born in London, and educated at Christ's hospital, whence he proceeded to Trinity college, Cambridge, of which society he became a fellow. . . . [He took the degree of doctor of medicine in Cambridge in 1716,] soon after which he settled in London, was admitted a Candidate of the College of Physicians 25th June, 1718; and a Fellow 25th June, '1719. He was soon elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and was appointed secretary 30th November, 1721, resigning that office on St. Andrew's day, 1727. In his capacity of secretary he edited the 31st and three following volumes of the "Philosophical Transactions."

. . . . Dr. Jurin's merits as a mathematician were of the highest order, and his papers in the "Philosophical Transactions" are, perhaps, the most satisfactory examples we possess of the application of mathematical science to physiology. His paper " De Potentia Cordis," in No. 358, and his essay in defence of it in No. 362, addressed to Dr. Mead, and written in very choice Latin. were in opposition to the views of Dr. Keil of Northampton. . . . . l)r. Jurin also wrote, " On the Causes of Distinct and Indistinct Vision ; " " On the Momentum of Running Waters ;" and " On Moving Bodies," which respectively led him into controversy with Robins, Michelotti and some of the followers of Leibnitz. In “The works of the Learned " for 1737, 1739, he carried on a controversy with Dr. Pemberton, in defence of Newton, signing himself there "Philalethes Cantabrigiensis." By Voltaire in the Journal de Scavans he was styled "the famous Jurin." His efforts in behalf of inoculation were indefatigable, and in the highest degree judicious. The perusal of his carefully-written and cautiously-reasoned papers on this subject could scarcely fail to carry conviction of the efficacy, safety, and propriety of the practice to all not blinded by prejudice or obstinately set on not being convinced. His only separate publication was on this subject, and is entitled,

A Letter containing a comparison between the Mortality of the Natural Small Pox and that given by Inoculation. 8vo. Lond. 1723.

There is also an entry for him in The Dictionary of National Biography: [G. T. B. (George Thomas Bettany). Jurin, James (1684-1750). Dictionary of National Biography. Volume X, Howard – Kenneth. London: Oxford University Press; 1921:1117-8].

Isaac Massey has been identified only by his being titled on the title page of his A Short and Plain Account of Inoculation as “Apothecary to Christ’s Hospital” (Massey 1723; Miller 1957, p. 108)).

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, Duke of Kingston, taught herself Latin as a child and grew up to become a prolific author of poetry. In 1712 she married Edward Wortley Montagu and accompanied him to Constantinople for his ambassadorial post. She is represented in The Dictionary of National Biography vol. 38, p. 259. A recently published detailed biography of her is that by Isobel Grundy [Grundy, Isobel. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999]. Also: Stone, A. F. M.; Stone, W. D. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: medical and religious controversy following her introduction of smallpox inoculation. Journal of Medical Biography 2002 Nov;10:232-6.

Thomas Nettleton: Little is known of Nettleton beyond his being a practitioner in Halifax, Yorkshire, a town roughly 15-20 kilometers west-southwest of Leeds.

Jacobus Pylarinus (1659-1718), a Greek graduate of Padua with degrees in law and medicine, served as a physician in various posts in southeastern Europe and in Russia. [Pietro Capparoni. La parte presa dal medico Greco Pilarino per la conoscenza dell' inmesto vaiuoloso nella profilassi contro il vaiuolo in Italia. Atti e memoirie deli' Accademia di storia dell' arte sanitaria. Ser. I, V; 1932, pp. 20-7.]. Cited by Miller (1957). Also: [Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Lascaratos, John. Emmanuel Timoni(u)s(?), Jacobus Pylarinus and inoculation. Journal of Medical Biography 2003 Aug;11(3):181-2.]. Also: [Pylarini, Jacob. A new and safe method of communicating the small-pox by inoculation, lately invented and brought into use. Translated and abridged from the Latin. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, from their commencement, in 1665, to the year 1800. Abridged. Vol. VI from 1713 to 1723. London: L. and R. Baldwin; 1809. pp. 207-10. Footnote p. 207.]

John Gaspar Scheuchzer (1702-1729) was a Swiss who became a protégé of Sir Hans Sloane and spent his last years in London. Here is an abbreviated excerpt from the entry for him in The Dictionary of National Biography [N. M. (Norman Moore). Scheutzer (sic), John Gaspar, M.D. 1702-1729. In: The Dictionary of National Biography. Volume XVII Robinson-Sheares. London: Oxford University Press; reprinted 1921-1922. P. 905]

JOHN GASPAR SCHEUTZER [sic], M.D., ... a native of Switzerland … graduated in philosophy at Zurich in 1722, and printed his inaugural essay on that occasion, "de Diluvio," 4to. He was created doctor of medicine at Cambridge during the visit of king George I. in 1728. Dr. Scheutzer was a good antiquary, and an accomplished medalist and natural historian. He was the protégé and librarian of sir Hans Sloane, and on the 14th May, 1724, was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, and was for some time foreign secretary of that learned body. He was admitted a Licentiate of the College of Physicians 22nd March, 1724-5; and dying at the house of sir Hans Sloane, in Chelsea, in April, 1729, was buried in the churchyard there. He was the author of “An Account of the Success of Inoculating the Small Pox, for the years 1727-1728. 8Vo. Lond. 1729”.

Emmanuele Timoni(us) (1669-1720?) was a graduate in medicine in Padua and spent some time in Constantinople. There he made English connections, notably with the British ambassadors, and after obtaining a degree at Oxford was elected to The Royal Society. [Raymond Phineas Steams. Fellows of the Royal Society in North Africa and the Levant, 1662 - 1800. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, XI, 1954, pp. 77-8. Cited by Miller (1957)]. Also: [Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Lascaratos, John. Emmanuel Timonius(?), Jacobus Pylarinus and inoculation. Journal of Medical Biography 2003 Aug;11(3):181-2.]