Recording and interpreting numbers

Numbers are needed to record the results of fair tests of treatments, and tables and graphs are used to describe the characteristics and experience of groups of patients, the treatment they have received, and quantitative estimates of treatment effects.


JLL Essay
3.1 Recording and interpreting numbers in testing treatments

Taking account of the play of chance

 

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al-Razi (10th century CE)
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Tröhler U (1978)
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John Clark 1780 & 1792: learning from properly kept records. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Withering’s 1785 appeal for caution when reporting on a new medicine. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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James Lind and scurvy: 1747 to 1795. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Quantitative evidence for judgments on the efficacy of inoculation for the prevention of smallpox: England and New England in the 1700s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Elisha Bartlett (1804–1855), an American disciple of Jules Gavarret. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2008).
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John Hunter: learning from natural experiments, ‘placebos’, and the state of mind of a patient in the 18th century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2010).
Thomas Nettleton and the dawn of quantitative assessments of the effects of medical interventions. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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The introduction of numerical methods to assess the effects of medical interventions during the 18th century: a brief history. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Boylston AW (2011).
Observation and experimentation in developing ‘the Suttonian Method’ of inoculation. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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The origins of vaccination: no inoculation, no vaccination. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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John Haygarth’s 18th century ‘Rules of Prevention’ for eradicating smallpox. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Who was James Lind, and what exactly did he achieve? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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William Cheselden’s 1740 presentation of data on age-specific mortality after lithotomy. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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