HEALTH PROBLEMS — GASTROINTESTINAL

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Lind J (1762)
An essay on the most effectual means of preserving the health of seamen, in the Royal Navy. London: D Wilson.

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Dobson M (1779)
A medical commentary on fixed air. Chester: J. Monk.

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Black W (1782)
An historical sketch of medicine and surgery from their origin to the present time. London: J Johnson.

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Black W (1788)
A comparative view of the mortality of the human species at all ages. London: Dilly, pp 35-38.

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Percival T (1788)
Essays medical, philosophical and experimental Vol 1.4th ed. Warrington: Eyres, for London: Johnson.

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Blane G (1789)
Observations on the diseases incident to seamen. 2nd edition. London: Cooper.

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Rollo J (1801)
A short account of the Royal Artillery Hospital at Woolwich. London: Mawman.

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MacGrigor J (1816)
Sketch of the medical history of the British armies in the peninsula of Spain and Portugal, during the late campaigns. Medico-chirurgical Transactions 6:381-489.

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MacLean C (1818)
Results of an Investigation, respecting Epidemic and Pestilential Diseases. Vol. 2. London: Underwood.

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Langton J (1899)
A discussion on the treatment of hernia in children. BMJ 2:470-472.

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Pearson K (1904)
Report on certain enteric fever inoculation statistics. BMJ 3:1243-1246.

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Drake DJ (1907)
The treatment of dysentery by yellow santonine. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 10:351-352.

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De Quervain JF (1913)
Die Behandlung der akute Appendicitis auf Grund einer schweizerischen Sammelstatistik [The treatment of acute appendicitis on the basis of aggregated Swiss hospital statistics]. Correspondenzblatt für Schweizer Aerzte 43:1609-1624.

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Manson-Bahr P (1931)
Modern methods of treatment of intestinal amœbiasis. Proceedings of Royal Society of Medicine 24:1538–1548.

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Blatt ML, Shaw NG (1932)
Bacillary dysentery in children: a report of the cases in the Cook County Children's Hospital, Chicago, for 1932. Presented a Regular Meeting of the Chicago Pediatric Society, 20 Dec 1932, reported in Archives of Pediatrics.

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Kessel JF, Rose EJ (1933)
Bacteriophage Therapy in Bacillary Dysentery of the Flexner Type*†. Annals of Internal Medicine 6:1193-1199.

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Alstead S (1941)
Action of Bismuth Carbonate in gastric disease. Lancet 238: 420-423.

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Anderson DEW, Cruickshank R (1941)
The treatment of bacilliary (Flexner) dysentery with sulphanilylguanidine. BMJ 2:497-501.

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Cooper ML, Zucker RL, Wagoner S, Brown EW, Bennett R (1941)
Sulfathiazole for acute diarrhea and dysentery of infants and children. JAMA 117:1520-3.

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Boyd JSK, Portnoy B (1944)
Bacteriophage therapy in bacillary dysentery. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 37:243-262.

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Darmady EM (1945)
The effects of protein diet on infective hepatitis. BMJ 1:795-797.

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Fletcher RT, Scadding JG (1945)
Observations on the MI room treatment of “acute simple diarrhoea” with sulphaguanidine. Unpublished manuscript.

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Gellis SS, Stokes J, Forster HW, Brother GM, Hall WM (1945)
The use of human immune serum globulin (gamma globulin) in infectious (epidemic) hepatitis in the Mediterranean theater of operations II. Studies on treatment in an epidemic of infectious hepatitis. JAMA 128:1158-9.

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Grossman EB, Stewart SG, Stokes J (1945)
Post-transfusion hepatitis in battle casualties: and a study of its prophylaxis by means of human immune serum globulin. JAMA 129:991-4.

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Havens WP, Paul JR (1945)
Prevention of infectious hepatitis with gamma globulin. JAMA 129:270-272.

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Higgins G, O'Brien JRP, Peters RA, Stewart A, Witts LJ (1945)
Treatment of infectious hepatitis with methionine. BMJ 1:401-402.

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Richardson JS, Suffern WS (1945)
A therapeutic trial of choline chloride in infective hepatitis. BMJ 2:156-157.

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Scadding JG (1945)
Sulphonamides in bacillary dysentery. Lancet 2:549-553.

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Wilson C, Pollock MR, Harris AD (1945)
Therapeutic trial of methionine in infective hepatitis. BMJ 1:399-401.

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Wilson C, Pollock MR, Harris AD (1946)
Diet in the treatment of infective hepatitis. Lancet 1:881-883.

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Nitsch K (1949)
Ulcusleiden und vegetatives Nervensystem [Ulcer illness and the autonomic nervous system]. Medizinische Klinik 44:503-5.

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Doll R, Pygott F (1952)
Factors influencing the rate of healing of gastric ulcers: admission to hospital, phenobarbitone, and ascorbic acid. Lancet 1: 171-175.

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Chalmers TC, Eckhardt RD, Reynolds WE, Cigarroa JG, Deane N, Reifenstein RW, Smith CW, Davidson CS (1955)
The treatment of acute infectious hepatitis. Controlled studies of the effects of diet, rest, and physical reconditioning on the acute course of the disease and on the incidence of relapses and residual abnormalities. Journal of Clinical Investigation 34: 1163-1235.

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Watkinson G (1958)
Treatment of ulcerative colitis with topical hydrocortisone hemisuccinate sodium. A controlled trial employing restricted sequential analysis. BMJ 2:1077-82.

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Waife SO, Shapiro AP (1959)
The clinical evaluation of new drugs. New York: Hoeber-Harper.

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Truelove SC, Watkinson G, Draper G (1962)
Comparison of corticosteroid and sulphasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis. BMJ 2:1708-1711.

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Chalmers TC, Koff RS, Grady GF (1965)
A note on fatality in serum hepatitis. Gastroenterology 49:22–26.

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Grace ND, Muench H, Chalmers TC (1966)
The present status of shunts for portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 50:684-691.

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Chalmers TC, Sebestyen CS, Lee S (1970)
Emergency surgical treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer: An analysis of the published data on 21,130 patients. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 82: 188-99.

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Conn HO, Blitzer BL (1976)
Nonassociation of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic ulcer. New England Journal of Medicine 294(9):473-9.

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Christensen E, Juhl E, Tygstrup N (1977)
Treatment of duodenal ulcer. Randomized clinical trials of a decade (1964 to 1974). Gastroenterology 73:1170-1178.

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Cochran WG, Diaconis P, Donner AP, Hoaglin DC, O’Connor NE, Peterson OL, Rosenoer VM (1977)
Experiments in surgical treatments of duodenal ulcer. In: Bunker JP, Barnes BA, Mosteller F, eds. Costs, risks and benefits of surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 176-197.

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Winship DH (1978)
Cimetidine in the treatment of duodenal ulcer: Review and commentary. Gastroenterology 74:402-406.

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Black RE, Dykes AC, Anderson KE, Wells JG, Sinclair SP, Gary GW Jr, Hatch MH, Gangarosa EJ (1981)
Handwashing to prevent diarrhea in day-care centers American Journal of Epidemiology. 113:445-51.

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Blackburn BA, Smith H, Chalmers TC (1982)
The inadequate evidence for short hospital stay after hernia or varicose vein stripping surgery. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine (NY) 49:383-390.

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Messer J, Reitman D, Sacks HS, Smith H, Chalmers TC (1983)
Association of adrenocorticosteroid therapy and peptic-ulcer disease. The New England Journal of Medicine 309(1):21-24.

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Stanton BF, Clemens JD (1987)
An educational intervention for altering water-sanitation behaviors to reduce childhood diarrhea in urban Bangladesh. II. A randomized trial to assess the impact of the intervention on hygienic behaviors and rates of diarrhea. American Journal of Epidemiology 125:292-301.

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Chalmers TC (1988)
Data analysis for clinical medicine: the quantitative approach to patient care in gastroenterology. Rome: International University Press.

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Gyorkos TW, Frappier-Davignon L, MacLean JD, Viens P (1989)
Effect of screening and treatment on imported intestinal parasite infections: results from a randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 129:753-61.

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Bartlett AV, Englender SJ, Jarvis BA, Ludwig L, Carlson JF, Topping JP (1991)
Controlled trial of Giardia lamblia: Control strategies in day care centers. American Journal of Public Health 81:1001-1006.

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Payment P, Richardson L, Siemiatycki J, Dewar R, Edwardes M, Franco E (1991)
A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards. American Journal of Public Health 81:703-708.

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Glasziou P, Chalmers I, Rawlins M, McCulloch P (2007)
When are randomised trials unnecessary? Picking signal from noise. BMJ 334: 349-351.

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Scadding JG (2002).
Reflections on my studies of the effects of sulphonamide drugs in bacillary dysentery in Egypt, 1943-1944. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Doll R (2003).
Controlled trials testing two or more treatments simultaneously. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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McPherson K, Bunker JP (2006).
Costs, risks and benefits of surgery: a milestone in the development of health services research. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Sackett DL† (2015).
Why did I become a clinician-trialist? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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