HEALTH PROBLEMS — CHILDBIRTH

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Smellie W (1752)
A treatise on the theory and practice of Midwifery. 2nd edition. London: D. Wilson, T Durham, p 224.

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Black W (1788)
A comparative view of the mortality of the human species at all ages. London: Dilly, pp 35-38.

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Gordon A (1795)
A treatise on the epidemic puerperal fever of Aberdeen. In: Churchill F, ed (1849). Essays on the puerperal fever and other diseases selected from the writings of British authors previous to the close of the eighteenth century. London: Sydenham Society, p 445-500.

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Blane G (1813)
Observations on the comparative prevalence, mortality, & treatment of different diseases.... Medico-chirurgical Transactions, Vol 4, p 89-141, London.

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Semmelweis I (1861)
Die Aetiologie, der Begriff und die Prophylaxis des Kindbettfiebers. [The etiology, concept, and prophylaxis of childbed fever]. Budapest and Vienna; Hartleben.

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Fry HD (1887)
The value of the antiseptic method in obstetric practice and its application to the forceps operation. JAMA 2 April, pp 388-390.

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Boxall, cited in Williams J (1888)
On the effect of ergot on the involution of the uterus. BMJ 1:229.

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Phillips J (1890)
On the analgesic value of antipyrin intra - and post - partum. Lancet 2:605-607.

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Fehling H (1903)
Zur Prophylaxe und Therapie des Puerperalfiebers [On the prophylaxis and treatment of puerperal fever]. Muenchener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 18 Aug.

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Döderlein D (1910)
The origin and prevention of puerperal fever. BMJ 2:1222-24.

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Baer JL (1915)
Scopolamin-morphin treatment in labor. JAMA 64:1723-1728.

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Plass ED (1916)
Post partum care of perineum. Bulletin of Johns Hopkins Hospital 27:107-109.

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Green HN, Pindar D, Davis G, Mellanby E (1931)
Diet as a prophylactic agent against puerperal sepsis. BMJ 2:595-598.

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Schauffler GC (1932)
Effect of knee-chest position and postural exercises on postpartum retroversion. JAMA 99:726-8.

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Colebrook L, Kenny M (1936)
Treatment of human puerperal infections, and of experimental infections in mice, with prontosil. Lancet 1:1279-1286.

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Colebrook L, Kenny M (1936)
Treatment with prontosil of puerperal infections due to haemolytic streptococci. Lancet 2:1319-1322.

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Corrigan JG, Strauss MB (1936)
The prevention of hypochromic anaemia in pregnancy. JAMA 106:1088-1090.

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Moir JC (1936)
Clinical experiences with the new alkaloid, ergometrine. BMJ 2:799-801.

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Colebrook L, Purdie AW (1937)
Treatment of 106 cases of puerperal fever by sulphanilamide. Lancet 2:1237-1242 & 1291-1294.

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Theobald GW (1937)
Effect of calcium and vitamin A and D on incidence of pregnancy toxaemia. Lancet 2:1397-1399.

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Johnstone RW (1938)
Prophylactic use of sulphonamide preparations in obstetric practice. BMJ 1:562-64.

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Lash AF (1938)
Concentrated streptococcus (hemolytic) antitoxic serum in puerperal fever: further therapeutic studies. JAMA 110:1988-91.

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Ross RA, Perlzweig WA, Taylor HM, McBryde A, Yates A, Kondritzer AA, Durham NC (1938)
A study of certain dietary factors of possible etiologic significance in toxemias of pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 35:426-440.

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Browne FJ (1939)
Vitamin E: (Section of Therapeutics and Pharmacology). Proc R Soc Med. 3: 853–864.

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People's League of Health (1942)
Nutrition of expectant and nursing mothers: interim report. Lancet 2:10-12.

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Browne FJ (1943)
On the value of vitamin B1 in prevention of toxaemia of pregnancy. BMJ 1:445-446.

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Dieckmann WJ, Adair FL, Michel H, Kramer S, Dunkle F, Arthur B, Costin M, Campbell A, Wensley AC, Lorang E (1944)
Calcium, phosphorus, iron and nitrogen balances in pregnant women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 47:357-368.

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Gunther M (1945)
Sore nipples - causes and prevention. Lancet 2:590-593.

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Waller H (1946)
The early failure of breast feeding: a clinical study of its causes and their prevention. Archives of Disease in Childhood 21:1-12.

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Furber Murphy A (1947)
Treatment of acute mastitis. BMJ 1:271.

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Robinson M (1947)
Cramps in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth 54:826-829.

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Robinson M (1947)
Hormonal treatment of deficient lactation. Lancet 2:90-92.

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Carliner PE, Radman HM, Gay LN (1949)
Treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy with Dramamine – preliminary report. Science 110:215-216.

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Cartwright EW (1951)
Dramamine in nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Western Journal of Surgery 59: 216-234.

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McBride WG (1961)
Thalidomide and congenital abnormalities. Lancet 2:1358.

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Berelson B, Freedman R (1964)
A study in fertility control. Scientific American 210:29-37.

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Colombo F, Shapiro S, Slone D, Tognoni G (1977)
Epidemiological evaluation of drugs. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.

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Hemminki E, Starfield B (1978)
Routine administration of iron and vitamins during pregnancy: review of controlled clinical trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85:404-410.

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Hemminki E, Starfield B (1978)
Prevention and treatment of premature labour by drugs: review of controlled clinical trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 85:411-417.

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Chalmers I (1979)
Randomized controlled trials of fetal monitoring 1973-1977. In: Thalhammer O, Baumgarten K, Pollak A, eds. Perinatal Medicine. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme:260-265.

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Robert E, Guibaud P (1982)
Maternal valproic acid and congenital neural tube defects. Lancet 2:937.

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King JF, Keirse MJNC, Grant A, Chalmers I (1985)
Tocolysis - the case for and against. In: Beard RW, Sharp F, eds. Preterm Labour and its Consequences. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 1985:199-208.

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Chassin MR, McCue SM (1986)
A randomized trial of medical quality assurance. Improving physicians’ use of pelvimetry. JAMA 256:1012-1016.

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Chalmers I, ed (1988)
The Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Elbourne D, Prendiville W, Chalmers I (1988)
Choice of oxytocic preparation for routine use in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 95:17-30.

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King JF, Grant A, Keirse MJNC, Chalmers I (1988)
Betamimetics in preterm labour: an overview of the randomized controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetetrics and Gynaecology 95:211-222.

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Prendiville W, Elbourne E, Chalmers I (1988)
The effects of routine oxytocic administration in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 95:3-16.

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Chalmers I, Enkin M, Keirse MJNC (1989)
Effective care in pregnancy and childbirth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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Grant A, Elbourne D, Valentin L, Alexander S (1989)
Routine formal fetal movement counting and risk of antepartum late death in normally formed singletons. Lancet 12;2:345-9.

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Crowley P, Chalmers I, Keirse MJNC (1990)
The effects of corticosteroid administration before preterm delivery: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 97:11–25.

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Loudon I (2002).
The use of historical controls and concurrent controls to assess the effects of sulphonamides, 1936-1945. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2002).
An early Medical Research Council controlled trial of vitamins for preventing infection. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Olsen SF (2002).
The People’s League of Health trial. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Rodeck CH (2004).
Geoffrey William Theobald (1896–1977). JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Grimes DA (2007).
Discovering the need for randomized controlled trials in obstetrics: a personal odyssey. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Fox DM (2011).
Systematic reviews and health policy: the influence of a project on perinatal care since 1988. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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La Rochelle P, Julien A-S (2013).
How dramatic were the effects of handwashing on maternal mortality observed by Ignaz Semmelweis? JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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Loudon I (2013).
Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis’ studies of death in childbirth. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.

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