James Lind Library
Illustrating the development of fair tests of treatments in health care
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Van Helmont JB (1648)
Ortus medicinæ: Id est Initia physicæ inaudita. Progressus medicinae novus, in morborum ultionem, ad vitam longam [The dawn of medicine: That is, the beginning of a new Physic. A new advance in medicine, a victory over disease, to (promote) a long life]. Amsterodami: Apud Ludovicum Elzevirium, pp 526-527.
Starkey G (1657)
Natures explication and Helmont’s vindication…Or A short and sure way to a long and sound life. London: printed by E. Cotes for Thomas Alsop at the two Sugar-loaves over against St. Antholins Church at the lower end of Watling Street.
Celli A (1900)
La nuova profilassi della malaria nel Lazio [The new prophylaxis against malaria in Lazio]. Supplemento al Policlinico 6:1601-1606.
Celli A (1900)
The new prophylaxis against malaria in Lazio. Lancet 156; 4031:1603-1606.
Amberson JB, McMahon BT, Pinner M (1931)
A clinical trial of sanocrysin in pulmonary tuberculosis. American Review of Tuberculosis 24:401-435.
Lindquist EF (1940)
Statistical analysis in educational research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Coburn AF (1944)
The prevention of respiratory tract bacterial infections. JAMA 126:88-89.
Mellanby H, Andrewes CH, Dudgeon JA, Mackay DG (1948)
Vaccination against influenza A. Lancet 251:978-982.
Comstock GW (1962)
Isoniazid prophylaxis in an undeveloped area. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 86:810-822.
Berelson B, Freedman R (1964)
A study in fertility control. Scientific American 210:29-37.
Horwitz O, Payne PG, Wilbek E (1966)
Epidemiologic basis for tuberculosis eradication. 4. The isoniazid trial in Greenland. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 35:509-526.
Storey J, Rossi-Espagnet A, Mandel SPH, Matsushima T, Lietaert P, Thomas D, Brøgger S, Duby C, Gramiccia G (1973)
Sulfalene with pyrimethamine and chloroquine with pyrimethamine in single-dose treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 49: 275-282.
Horwitz O, Magnus K (1974)
Epidemiologic evaluation of chemoprophylaxis against tuberculosis. American Journal of Epidemiology 99:333-342.
Reiss ML, Piotrowski WD, Bailey JS (1976)
Behavioral community psychology: Encouraging low-income parents to seek dental care for their children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 9:387-397.
Farquhar JW (1978)
The community-based model of life style intervention trials. American Journal of Epidemiology 108:103-111.
Cornfield J (1978)
Randomization by group: a formal analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology 108:100-102.
Fisher SG (1980)
The use of time limits in brief psychotherapy: a comparison of six-session, twelve-session, and unlimited treatment with families. Family Process. 19:377-92.
Black RE, Dykes AC, Anderson KE, Wells JG, Sinclair SP, Gary GW Jr, Hatch MH, Gangarosa EJ (1981)
Handwashing to prevent diarrhea in day-care centers American Journal of Epidemiology. 113:445-51.
Waber DP, Vuori-Christiansen L, Ortiz N, Clement JR, Christiansen NE, Mora JO, Reed RB, Herrera MG (1981)
Nutritional supplementation, maternal education, and cognitive development of infants at risk of malnutrition. Am J Clin Nutr (Suppl 4):807-13.
Cohen DI, Littenberg B, Wetzel C, Neuhauser D (1982)
Improving physician compliance with preventive medicine guidelines. Medical Care 20:1040-1045.
Dwyer T, Coonan WE, Leitch DR, Hetzel BS, Baghurst RA (1983)
An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology 12:308-13.
Lloyd DM, Alexander HM, Callcott R, Dobson AJ, Hardes GR, O'Connell DL, Leeder SR (1983)
Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: III--evaluation of a smoking prevention education programme Int J Epidemiol 12:51-8.
Sutter EE, Ballard RC (1983)
Community participation in the control of trachoma in Gazankulu. Social Science & Medicine 17:22:1813-1817.
Rose G, Tunstall-Pedoe HD, Heller RF (1983)
UK heart disease prevention project: Incidence and mortality results. Lancet1:1062-6.
Vogt RL, Larue D, Klaucke DN, Jillson DA (1983)
Comparison of an active and passive surveillance system of primary care providers for Hepatitis, Measles, Rubella, and Salmonellosis in Vermont. American Journal of Public Health 73:795-7.
Perry CL, Telch MJ, Killen MJ, Burke J, Maccoby N (1983)
High school smoking prevention: The relative efficacy of varied treatments and instructions. Adolescence 18:561-6.
McGhan WF, Smith WE, Adams DW (1983)
A randomized trial comparing pharmacists and technicians as dispensers of prescriptions for ambulatory patients. Medical Care 21:445-53.
McDonald CJ, Hui SL, Smith DM, Tierney WM, Cohen SJ, Weinberger M, McCabe GP (1984)
Reminders to physicians from an introspective computer medical record. A two-year randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 100:130-8.
Gehlbach SH, Wilkinson WE, Hammond WE, Clapp NE, Finn AL, Taylor WJ, Rodell M (1984)
Improving drug prescribing in a primary care practice. Medical Care 22:193-201.
Graham JW, Flay BR, Johnson CA, Hansen WB, Collins LM (1984)
A multiattribute utility measurement approach to the use of random assignment with small numbers of aggregated units. Evaluation Review 8:247-260.
Sommers LS, Sholtz R, Shepherd RM, Starkweather DB (1984)
Physician involvement in quality assurance. Medical Care 22:1115-1138.
Yokley JM, Glenwick DS (1984)
Increasing the immunization of preschool children; An evaluation of applied community interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 17:313-325.
Roberts MM, Alexander FE, Anderson TJ, Forrest APM, Hepburn W, Huggins A, Kirkpatrick AE, Lamb J, Lutz W, Muir BB (1984)
The Edinburgh randomised trial of screening for breast cancer: Description of method. British Journal of Cancer 50:1-6.
Simons-Morton BG, Coates TJ, Saylor KE, Sereghy E, Barofsky I (1984)
Great Sensations: a program to encourage heart healthy snacking by high school students. Journal of School Health 54:288-91.
Dielman TE, Leech SL, Lorenger AT, Horvath WJ (1984)
Resisting pressures to smoke: a longitudinal study. Paper presented at the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto. Report: ED 255 854; CG 018 186.
Tabár L, Fagerberg CJ, Gad A, Baldetorp L, Holmberg LH, Gröntoft O, Ljungquist U, Lundström B, Månson JC, Eklund G, Day NE, Pettersson F (1985)
Reduction in mortality from breast cancer after mass screening with mammography Randomised trial from the Breast Cancer Screening Working Group of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Lancet 13;1:829-32.
Kornitzer M, Rose G (1985)
WHO European Collaborative Trial of multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease. Preventive Medicine 14:272-8.
Flay BR, Ryan KB, Best JA, Brown KS, Kersell MW, d'Avernas JR, Zanna MP (1985)
Are social-psychological smoking prevention programs effective? The Waterloo study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 8:37-59.
Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL (1985)
Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 122:772-81.
Puska P, Nissinen A, Pietinen P, Iacono J (1985)
Role of dietary fat in blood pressure control. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum. 176:62-9.
Walsh MM (1985)
Effects of school-based dental health education on knowledge, attitudes and behavior of adolescents in San Francisco. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 13:143-7.
Bass MJ, McWhinney IR, Donner A (1986)
Do family physicians need medical assistants to detect and manage hypertension? Canadian Medical Association Journal 134:1247-55.
Connor MK, Smith LG, Fryer A, Erickson S, Fryer S, Drake J (1986)
Future Fit: A cardiovascular health education and fitness project in an after-school setting. The Journal of School Health 56(8): 329-333.
Evans CE, Haynes RB, Birkett NJ, Gilbert JR, Taylor DW, Sackett DL, Johnston ME, Hewson SA (1986)
Does a mailed continuing education program improve physician performance? Results of a randomized trial in antihypertensive care. JAMA 24-31;255:501-4.
Sommer A, Tarwotjo I, Djunaedi E, West KP Jr, Loeden AA, Tilden R, Mele L (1986)
Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. A randomised controlled community trial. Lancet 24;1:1169-73.
World Health Organisation European Collaborative Group (1986)
European collaborative trial of multifactorial prevention of coronary heart disease: final report on the 6-year results. Lancet 1:869-72.
Chassin MR, McCue SM (1986)
A randomized trial of medical quality assurance. Improving physicians’ use of pelvimetry. JAMA 256:1012-1016.
Stross JK, Banwell BF, Wolf FM, Becker MC (1986)
Evaluation of an education program on the management of rheumatic diseases for physical therapists. Journal of Rheumatology 13:374-8.
Choi T, Jameson H, Brekke ML, Podratz RO, Mundahl H (1986)
Effects on nurse retention. An experiment with scheduling. Medical Care 24:1029-43.
Vartiainen E, Puska P, Tossavainen K, Viri L, Niskanen E, Moisio S, McAlister A, Pallonen U (1986)
Prevention of non-communicable diseases: Risk factors in youth. The North Karelia Youth Project (1984-88). Health Promotion 1:269-83.
Schinke SP, Gilchrist LD, Schilling RF, Senechal VA (1986)
Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results. Public Health Reports 101:373-8.
Stanton BF, Clemens JD (1987)
An educational intervention for altering water-sanitation behaviors to reduce childhood diarrhea in urban Bangladesh. II. A randomized trial to assess the impact of the intervention on hygienic behaviors and rates of diarrhea. American Journal of Epidemiology 125:292-301.
Goldberg HI, Cohen DI, Hershey CO, Hsiue I, Porter DK, McClaren CE (1987)
A randomized controlled trial of academic group practice. JAMA 257:2051-2055.
Mayer JA, Dubbert PM, Scott RR, Dawson BL, Ekstrand ML, Fondren TG (1987)
Breast self-examination: The effects of personalized prompts on practice frequency. Behavior Therapy 18:135-46.
Biglan A, Severson H, Ary D, Faller C, Gallison C, Thompson R, Glasgow R, Lichtenstein E (1987)
Do smoking prevention programs really work? Attrition and internal and external validity of an evaluation of a refusals skills training program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 10:159-71.
Farr BM, Hendley JO, Kaiser DL, Gwaltney JM (1988)
Two randomized controlled trials of virucidal nasal tissues in the prevention of natural upper respiratory infections. Am J Epidemiol 128:1162-72.
Wilson DM, Taylor DW, Gilbert JR, Best JA, Lindsay EA, Willms DG, Singer J (1988)
A randomized trial of a family physician intervention for smoking cessation. JAMA 16;260:1570-4.
Job-Spira N, Meyer L, Bouvet E, Janaud A, Spira A (1988)
The prevention of sexually transmitted diseases which affect fertility: methodological problems and initial results. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 27:157-164.
West KP, Djunaedi E, Pandji A, Kusdiono, Tarwotjo I, Sommer A (1988)
Vitamin A supplementation and growth: a randomized community trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 48:1257-64.
Brady WJ, Hissa DC, McConnell M, Wones RG (1988)
Should physicians perform their own quality assurance audits? Journal of General Internal Medicine 3:560-565.
Grant A, Elbourne D, Valentin L, Alexander S (1989)
Routine formal fetal movement counting and risk of antepartum late death in normally formed singletons. Lancet 12;2:345-9.
Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, Sheridan MJ, Walter HJ (1989)
Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: two-year results of the "Know Your Body" program. American Journal of Epidemiology 129:466-82.
Dielman TE, Shope JT, Leech SL, Butchart AT (1989)
Differential effectiveness of an elementary school-based alcohol misuse prevention program. The Journal of School Health 59(6):225-263.
Gyorkos TW, Frappier-Davignon L, MacLean JD, Viens P (1989)
Effect of screening and treatment on imported intestinal parasite infections: results from a randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 129:753-61.
Seto WH, Ching PTY, Fung JPM, Fielding R (1989)
The role of communication in the alteration of patient-care practices in hospital-a prospective study. Journal of Hospital Infection 14:29-37.
Kottke TE, Brekke ML, Solberg LI, Hughes JR (1989)
A randomized trial to increase smoking intervention by physicians. Doctors helping smokers, round 1. JAMA 261:2101-2106.
Rubenstein LV, Calkins DR, Young RT, Cleary PD, Fink A, Kosecoff J, Jette AM, Davies AR, Delbanco TL, Brook RH (1989)
Improving patient function: A randomized trial of functional disability screening. Annals of Internal Medicine 111:836-842.
Flay BR, Koepke D, Thomson SJ, Santi S, Best JA, Brown KS (1989)
Six-year follow-up of the first Waterloo school smoking prevention trial. American Journal of Public Health 79:1371-6.
Fors SW, Owen S, Hall WD, McLaughlin J, Levinson R (1989)
Evaluation of a diffusion strategy for school-based hypertension education. Health Education Quarterly 16:255-61.
Donner A, Brown KS, Brasher P (1990)
A methodological review of non-therapeutic intervention trials employing cluster randomization, 1979-1989. International Journal of Epidemiology 19:795-800.
Worden JK, Solomon LJ, Flynn BS, Costanza MC, Foster RS, Dorwaldt AL, Weaver SO (1990)
A community-wide program in breast self-examination training and maintenance. Preventive Medicine 19;254-269.
Johnson CA, Pentz MA, Weber MD, Dwyer JH, Baer N, MacKinnon DP, Hansen WB, Flay BR (1990)
Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programming for drug abuse prevention with high-risk and low-risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 58:447-56.
Ary DV, Biglan A, Glasgow R, Zoref L, Black C, Ochs L, Severson H, Kelly R, Weissman W, Lichtenstein E, Brosovsky P, Wirt R, James L (1990)
The efficacy of social-influence prevention programs versus "standard care": are new initiatives needed? Journal of Behavioral Medicine 13:281-96.
Botvin GJ, Tortu S, Baker E Dusenbury L (1990)
Preventing adolescent cigarette smoking: Resistance skills training and development of life skills. Special Services in the Schools 6:37-61.
Abdeljaber MH, Monto AS, Tilden RL, Schork MA, Tarwotjo I (1991)
The impact of Vitamin A supplementation on morbidity: a randomized community intervention trial. American Journal of Public Health 81:1654-1656.
Bartlett AV, Englender SJ, Jarvis BA, Ludwig L, Carlson JF, Topping JP (1991)
Controlled trial of Giardia lamblia: Control strategies in day care centers. American Journal of Public Health 81:1001-1006.
Bauman KE, LaPrelle J, Brown JD, Koch GG, Padgett CA (1991)
The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: Results of a field experiment. American Journal of Public Health 81:597-604.
Hansen WB, Graham JW (1991)
Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive medicine 20:414-430.
Knutsen SF, Knutsen R (1991)
The Tromsø survey: The family intervention study-the effect of intervention on some coronary risk factors and dietary habits, a 6-year follow up. Preventive Medicine 20:197-212.
Payment P, Richardson L, Siemiatycki J, Dewar R, Edwardes M, Franco E (1991)
A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards. American Journal of Public Health 81:703-708.
Arbeit ML, Johnson CC, Mott DS, Harsha DW, Nicklas TA, Webber LS, Berenson GS (1992)
The heart smart cardiovascular school health promotions: Behaviour correlates of risk factor change. Preventive medicine 21:18-32.
Abernathy TJ, Bertrand LD (1992)
Preventing cigarette smoking among children: Results of a four-year evaluation of the PAL program. Canadian Journal of Public Health 83:226-229.
Avorn J, Soumerai SB, Everitt DE, Ross-Degnan D, Beers MH, Sherman D, Salem-Schatz SR, Fields D (1992)
A randomized trial of a program to reduce the use of psychoactive drugs in nursing homes. New England Journal of Medicine 327:168-173.
McCusker J, Stoddard Am, Zapka JG, Morrison CS, Zorn M, Lewis BF (1992)
AIDS education for drug abusers: Evaluation of short-term effectiveness. American Journal of Public Health 82:533-540.
Rimer BK, Resch N, King E, Ross E, Lerman C, Boyce A, Engstrom PF (1992)
Multistrategy health education program to increase mammography use among women ages 65 and older. Public Health Reports 107:369-380.
Sorensen G, Morris DM, Hunt MK, Hebert JR, Harris DR, Stoddart A, Ockene JK (1992)
Work-site nutrition intervention and employees’ dietary habits: The treatwell program. American Journal of Public Health 82:877-880.
Walker R, Heller R, Redman S, O’Connell D, Boulton J (1992)
Reduction of ischemic heart disease risk markers in the teenage children of heart attack patients. Preventive Medicine 21:616-629.
O’Hare PA (1992)
Comparing two models of discharge planning rounds in acute care. Applied Nursing Research 5:66-73.
Bell RM, Ellickson PL, Harrison ER (1993)
Do drug prevention effects persist into high school? How project ALERT did with 9th graders. Preventive Medicine 22:463-483.
Elder JP, Wildey M, de Moor C, Sallis JF, Eckhardt L, Edwards C, Erickson A, Golbeck A, Hovell M, Johnston D, Levitz MD, Molgaard C, Young R, Vito D, Woodruff SI (1993)
The long-term prevention of tobacco use among junior high school students: Classroom and telephone investigations. American Journal of Public Health 83:1239-1244.
Gomel M, Oldenburg B, Simpson JM, Owen N (1993)
Work-site cardiovascular risk reduction: A randomized trial of health risk assessment, education, counseling, and incentives. American Journal of Public Health 83:1231-1238.
Lewis BS, Lynch WD (1993)
The effect of physician advice on exercise behavior. Preventive medicine 22:110-121.
Sussman S, Dent CW, Stacy AW, Sun P, Craig S, Simon TR, Burton D, Flay BR (1993)
Project towards no tobacco use: 1-year behavior outcomes. American Journal of Public Health 83:1245-1250.
Jeffery RW, Forster JL, French SA, Kelder SH, Lando HA, McGovern PG, Jacobs DR, Baxter JE (1993)
The healthy worker project: A work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health 83:395-401.
Simpson JM, Klar N, Donner A (1995)
Accounting for cluster randomization: a review of primary prevention trials, 1990 through 1993. American Journal of Public Health 85:1378-1383.
Donner A, Klar N (2000)
Design and analysis of cluster randomization trials in health research. London: Arnold.
Biglan A, Ary DV, Smolkowski K, Duncan T, Black C (2000)
A randomised controlled trial of a community intervention to prevent adolescent tobacco use. Tobacco Control 9:24-32.
Kramer MS, Martin RM, Sterne JA, Shapiro S, Mourad D, Platt RW (2009)
The double jeopardy of clustered measurement and cluster randomisation. BMJ 339:503-505.
Connolly SJ, Philippon F, Longtin Y, Casanova A, Birnie DH, Exner DV, Dorian P, Prakash R, Alings M, Krahn AD (2013)
Randomized cluster crossover trials for reliable, efficient, comparative effectiveness testing: design of the Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial (PADIT). Can J Cardiol 29:652-8.
Stockwell MS, CaCamargo S, Ramakrishnan R, Holleran S, Findley SE, Kukafka R, Hofstetter AM, Fernandez N, Vawdrey DK (2015)
Registry-linked electronic influenza vaccine provider reminders: a cluster-crossover trial. Pediatrics. 135:e75-82.
Garattini S (2018).
Italian controlled trials to assess prevention and treatment of malaria, 1900-1930s. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment evaluation.
Principles of testing
What is a fair test?
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